Inability to accommodate for near objects. Causes light rays to focus behind the retina.
Inability to accommodate for objects at a distance.
Loss of accommodation associated with age (40 yrs)
A refractive error caused by unevenly curved surfaces on or in the eye, especially of the cornea.
Correctable refractive errors
- surgical therapy:
- nonsurgical corrections: glasses, contact lenses
- surgical therapy: Laser (lasik, lasek), implant
Definition of legal blindness in the US
- central visual acuity for distance of _____ or worse in the better eye.
- Visual field no greater than ____ degrees in its widest diameter or in the better eye.
- Central visual acuity for distance of 20/200 or worse.
- Visual field no greater than 20 degrees in its widest diameter.
How to assist the patient that has uncorrectable vision impairment to ambulate?
Sighted guide technique
what is sighted guide technique?
stand slightly in front and to one side of patient, and offer an elbow for the patient to hold. Walking slightly ahead of the patient with the patient holding the back of your arm. As you walk describe the environment to help orient the patient.
Commonly called a stye
- infection of sebaceous glands in lid margin
- Staphylococcus aureus - most common agent
- Red, swollen tender area develops rapidly
treatment is with warm compresses four times a day and antibacterial ointment if recurs, which may blur vision.
Chronic inflammatory granuloma of the sebaceous glands in the lid
- Can evolve from a _______ or material released into the lid when blocked gland ruptures
- Surgically remove the lesion or inject corticosteroids
- Can evolve from a hordeulum
- Symptoms: swollen tender, reddened area, painful
- Treatment: apply warm moist compressors
Inflammation of the eyelid edges (lid margins)
- Itchy, red, and burning eyes
- Seborrhea of the eyebrows and eyelids with greasy scales and matting.
Control with eyelid care using warm, moist compresses followed by gentle scrubbing with diluted baby shampoo.
- If the cause is staph, _____ is needed.
- avoid ____ of eyes
- Blepharitis treatment
- If cause is staph, antibiotics is needed
- Avoid rubbing of the eyes
- Occurs at every age group, most common in _____.
- S aureus.
- Occurs at every age grou, most common in children.
- S&S: discomfort, itching, redness, mucopulurent drainage.
- Tx: Self-limiting, antibiotics (besifloxacin)
- S&S: tearing, foreign body sensation, redness, mild photophobia
- TX: mild self limiting, but can be severe, corticosteroids
Cause of ______.
Transmitted by _____ and _______.
- Cause of blindness
- Transmitted by hands and fly.
- S&S: mucopulurent ocular drainage, redness, swelling, irritation
- Tx: antibiotics
Allergen (polen, animal dender)
- S&S: itching
- Tx: avoid the allergen, artificial tears, antihistamines or corticosteroids
Caused by a variety of bacteria.