PP-2 Periodontium

  1. What is the definition of the periodontium
    tissues that surround, support and are attached to the teeth
  2. What are the tissues of the periodontium
    • Gingiva
    • Cementum
    • Pdl
    • Alveolar bone
  3. Underlying the gingiva is the __________ which is the ________
    • lamina propria
    • connective tissue part of the gingiva
  4. Gingival crevicular fluid is fluid that seeps from the _________ and increases in the presence of ________
    • underlying connective tissue
    • gingival inflammation, tooth brushing and mastication
  5. The width of attached gingiva is the distance between the
    mucogingival junction and the bottom of the pocket or sulcus
  6. The with of attached gingiva in the incisor and molar areas is about _______ wide and about ______ wide in the premolar areas
    • 3 to 4 mm
    • 2 mm
  7. In general we would like to see at least _______ of attached gingiva
  8. There is a facial papilla and a lingual papilla, connected by a
  9. Is col non keratinized or keratinized?
    Non keratinized
  10. What kind of tissue is the periodontal ligament
    soft connective tissue
  11. Periodontal ligament is composed of _______ that attach the ________ on one side to the ______ on the other side and also known as _________
    • fiber bundles
    • root cementum
    • alveolar bone
    • Sharpey’s fibers
  12. Periodontal ligament functions to
    • –Support the tooth
    • –Provide sensory feeling
    • –Provide nutrition by-way-of blood vessels–Provide cells to build and maintain cementum and alveolar bone
    • – Provide cells to resorb cementum and alveolar bone
  13. Cementum has it's own blood supply
  14. Alveolar bone is the bone that _______ and also known as ______
    • surrounds and supports the roots of the teeth
    • alveolar bone proper and the cribriform plate
  15. What are the two layers of alveolar bone
    • Outside cortical or compact bone
    • Inside cancellous
  16. Nerve supply to the periodontium occurs by-way-of branches of the _________ nerve with maxillary innervation via the _______ and the mandibular innervation via the ______
    • trigeminal
    • second branch (superior alveolar nerve)
    • third branch (inferior alveolar nerve)
  17. Maxillary ginvigival innervation includes what nerves
    superior alveolar nerves-(anterior, middle, posterior) infraorbital, greater palatine and nasopalatine nerves
  18. Mandibular ginvigival innervation includes what nerves
    (inferior alveolar nerve – lingual nerve, buccal nerve and mental nerve)
  19. Blood supply to the periodontium for the Maxillary gingiva, PDL and bone include
    • Anterior and posterior-superior alveolar arteries
    • Infraorbital artery
    • Greater palatine artery
  20. Blood supply to the periodontium for the mandibular gingiva, PDL and bone include
    Inferior alveolar artery and its branches (buccal, facial, mental, incisive and sublingual)
  21. The function of the lymphatic system is to
    filter out and trap bacteria, fungi, viruses and to help eliminate them
  22. Lymph from periodontal tissues is drained to what lymph nodes of the head and neck
    Deep cervical, submental, submandibular and jugulodigastric nodes
  23. The gingiva includes what kind of epithelium
    oral epithelium, sulcular epithelium and junctional epithelium
  24. The keratinized oral epithelium consists of what cell layers
    • Keratinized cell (cornified) cell layer (stratum corneum)
    • Granular cell layer (stratum granulosum)Spinous cell (prickle cell) layer (stratum spinosum),
    • Basal cell layer (stratum basale)
  25. Only the cells in the _______ layer undergo mitosis
    basal cell
  26. Nonkeratinized sulcular and junctional epithelium consist of what 3 layers
    • –Superficial cell layer
    • –Prickle cell layer (Intermediate)
    • –Basal cell layer
  27. The gingival epithelium is joined to the underlying connective tissue at the basement membrane by a _______
    basal lamina
  28. The basal lamina consists of a what two layers
    lamina lucida and lamina densa
  29. ____________ from the basal epithelial cells connect to the basal lamina
  30. Crevicular fluid functions to
    cleanse the sulcus and has antimicrobial(white blood cells) and immune(antibodies) properties
  31. What kind of cells does the gingival crevicular contain
    Inflammatory cells (92% of the gingival crevicular fluid consists of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other white blood cells) lysosomal enzymes, and other by-products of the inflammatory process such as enzymes and cytokines
  32. What is the length of the junctional epithelium
    about 1mm
  33. The junctional epithelium is attached to the enamel and cementum via _________
  34. What is the major importance of the junctional epithelium
    Barrier to stop bacteria from entering the body
  35. As we age what direction does teeth move
  36. The junctional epithelium has what 2 layers,
    the basal cell layer and the prickle cell layer
  37. _________ and the ________ are part of the dentogingival unit
    • Junctional epithelium
    • gingival fibers
  38. Name the principal gingival fiber bundles
    • Dentogingival fibers
    • Alveologingival fibers
    • Dentoperiosteal fibers
    • Circular fibers
    • Transeptal fibers
  39. Where are the Dentogingival fibers
    radiate from the cementum into the free gingiva and attached gingiva to support the gingiva against the tooth
  40. Where are the Alveologingival fibers
    radiate from the periosteum into the attached gingiva to attach the gingiva to the bone
  41. Where are the Dentoperiosteal fibers located
    run from the cementum across the alveolar crest to help   protect the periodontal ligament and hold the tissue to the tooth
  42. Where are the Circular fibers located
    encircle the entire tooth coronal to the alveolar crest to help support the free gingiva
  43. Where are Transeptal fibers located
    span the interdental space inserting into the cementum on adjacent teeth and help to maintain the relationships between teeth
  44. Where are the Intergingival fibers (secondary fibers) located
    run mesiodistally in the connective tissue beneath the gingival epithelium to help support the attached gingiva
  45. How thick is the periodontal ligament space
  46. The fibers of the periodontal ligament are primarily composed of _______ and classified into what 5 principal fiber bundles
    • Type I collagen fibers
    • Alveolar crest group
    • Horizontal group
    • Oblique group
    • Apical group
    • Interradicular fiber group
  47. Where are the Alveolar crest group fibers located and what is the function
    runs from cementum just below the CEJ to the crestal bone to help anchor tooth in socket and oppose lateral forces
  48. Where are the Horizontal group fibers located and what is the function
    runs from cementum to the alveolar bone in the coronal third of the root to help anchor tooth in socket and oppose tilting and rotational forces
  49. Where are the Oblique group fibers located and what is the function
    runs in an oblique direction from cementum to the alveolar bone to help anchor tooth in socket and oppose intrusive and rotational forces.
  50. Which periodontal fiber groups are the largest
  51. Where are the Apical group fibers located and what is the function
    runs from the apex of the root into the alveolar bone to help anchor tooth in socket and oppose extrusive and rotational forces
  52. Where are the Interradicular fiber group located and what is the function
    runs from the furcation of multirooted teeth and attach into the alveolar bone to help anchor tooth in socket and oppose intrusive, extrusive and rotational forces
  53. What are some characteristics of acellular or primary cementum
    • is the first to be formed and covers the cervical 1/3 to 1/2 the root
    • Contains no cementocytes
    • Formed prior to closure of the apex
    • About 30 – 60 microns thick
  54. What are some characteristics of cellular or secondary cementum
    • mainly in the apical 1/3 of the root
    • Contains cementocytes
    • Forms throughout life
    • About 150-200 microns thick
  55. What is the percentage of Overlap – cementum overlaps enamel
  56. What is the percentage of Meet –cementum meets the enamel
  57. What is the percentage of Gap-
  58. What is a dehiscence
    –occurs where the bone between the crest and fenestration is so thin that the bone at the crest may disappear altogether
  59. What is a fenestration
    (window) – may occur where roots are prominent and the overlying bone is thin
Card Set
PP-2 Periodontium
PP-2 Periodontium