Purpose of Medication?
Relief of symptoms, support of necessary physiological process and destruction of toxic substance that causes the disease.
preventing medication errors
improving communication with patients, constantly monitoring for errors, proving clinicians with decision making support, standardizing medication labeling and drug related information.
what is Pharmacology?
study of the actions of incorporated knowledge from other interconnected sciences such as, Phamacokinatics, pharmacodynamics.
drugs are classified by how they affected certain body system. Certain drugs in same class have many features in common, categorize them in these ways helps nurses became familiar with many of the drugs they are administrating.
Nurses must know the trade name of the drug, which is assigned by the pharma companies, and the generic name, which is official drug name and is not protected by trademark.
when comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act was passed?
- It was passed on 1970, regulate the manufacturing and distribution with potential to abuse.
- E.g. Narcotics, hallucinogens, stimulants, depressants, and diabolic steroids.
( Schedules I-V) Category.
Narcotics, hallucinogens, stimulants, depressants, and diabolic steroids.
DEA Department of Drug Enforcement agent.
DEA enforce the law and requires all individuals and companies that handles controlled substance to provide storage security., keep accurate record, provide name of provider that assigned by DEA of all the controlled substance.
Schedule I drugs
Schedule I drugs are not dispensed, except in rare instance of specific scientific or medical research.
Schedule II drugs
No refills can be ordered on Schedule II drug, provider must write new prescription.
- Schedule I = Not approved for Use. E.G, LSD, Marijuana, Heroin, Gama-Hydrogenate ( Ecstasy)
- Schedule II = Opiod analgesics ( e.g Codeine, morphine, hydrophone, methadone, oxcodone), CNS stimulates, (E.g Cocaine, amphetamine, depressants (E.g Barbiturates-phenobarbital.
- Schedule= III Less potential for abuse than schedule I and II.
- Anabolic steriods; mixture contained small amount of controlled substance such as codeine.
- Schedule IV: Some potential abuse. Prescription expires in 6 months. Benzodiazephine( E.g diazepam, lorazepam) other seative ( Eg Phenobarbital ) some prescription appitite suppressants, ( E.g Mazindol )
- Schedule V: Antidiaaheal drugs contained small amount of controlled substance such as ( Eg Lomotil )
Nursing Process 5 steps:
Assessment, Nursing Diagnosis, Planning, and establishing goals or outcome, intervention and evaluation.
Collecting data from paitant, sinificant others medical records including lab records and diagnostic test. Gather data about drugs.
Nursing dignoesis were developed by North America Diagnosis association NANDA. are statement of patient problems, potential problems or needs.
Clustering the data gathered during Assessment, analyzing for patterns, and making inference about patient or actual problems.
Nursing Diagnosis steps:
- * Patient has knowledge deficit related to drug therapy and reasons for use. need for follow up tests and office visits.
- * Patient is at risk for injury releted to adverse effects of medications.
- * patient is at risk for falls, for anticipated or unanticipated adverse side effects of medications.
- * Diarrhea ( or constipation ) related to side effects of medications.
- *Ineffective health maintenance related to inability to make appropriate judgement or lack of resources.
- ( Nursing Process 3rd step )
- During this phase, Goals and outcome criteria are formulated.
The intervention phase of nursing process involve caring out the planned activities.
- This process is continuous process of determining towards identified goals.
- Maybe require lab tests, and diagnostic tests, interviewing patient, and side effects of medications.
Requires doctors visit for blood pressure check and other side effects.
Cultural aspect of nursing therapy
- Example of cultural consideration affecting nursing care in drug therapy include paint response , belief in traditional healing vs belief in medications effectiveness for restoring health.
- Careful nursing assessment will include cultural beliefs and practices that may impact drug therapy.
Legal ethical aspect of drug therapy.
Defined as stare nurse practice acts and healthcare organization policies and procedures.
Eight rights of medication administration.
- 1- The right drug is given to.
- 2- Right patient.
- 3- The right dose.
- 4-The right route.
- 5- Right time.
- 6-Right reason.
- 7- Right documentation.
- 8-The right response.
Reasons for medication errors
The medication errors happen due to failure to follow these 8 rights.
Ethical principles of Nursing practice by ANA
- 1- Respect the dignity of all patients.
- 2- professional competency.
- 3- protect patient privacy and rights/
- 4-commitment to provide quality patient care in every settings.
how can medication errors can be prevented?
- patient reconciliation forms been use to prevent errors. most medication errors happens during patient transfer.
- Patient identification through wrist bracelets with bar codes.
- Environmental factor: Work load, working with acutely ill patient, distraction while administering or preparing medication.