1. a. Chip Detector Warning
    • If the contamination is severe, the engine may fail with little or no further warning.
  2. a. Chip Detector Warning - Indications
    • Chip Warning
  3. a. Chip Detector Warning - Critical Action Items
    • • *PCL – minimum required to intercept ELP; avoid unnecessary PCL movements
    • • CAUTION
    • • Higher power settings may aggravate the existing condition
    • • Do not exceed 60% Q (as per LtCol Trombly)
    • • *PEL - Execute
  4. b. Oil System Malfunction or Low Oil Pressure
    • • Use this procedure for any of the following:
    • • red OIL PX warning
    • • amber OIL PX
    • • oil pressure fluctuations
    • • oil temp out of limits
    • • If OIL PX warning and oil pressure <5 psi, check OIL TRX circuit breaker (left front console). If circuit breaker is open, it may be reset
    • • Due to sensitivity, a single, momentary amber OIL PX while maneuvering is possible but may not indicate a malfunction
    • • Both red and amber OIL PX message while the oil pressure gauge indicates normal pressure indicates an SCU (signal conditioning unit that contains logic to illuminate warning on EICAS) failure
  5. b. Oil System Malfunction or Low Oil Pressure - Indications and Limits
    • • Amber OIL PX caution
    • • Red OIL PX warning
    • • Limits
    • • Oil Pressure
    • • Takeoff/Max – 90 to 120
    • • IDLE – 90 min
    • • Start – 200 Max
    • • Transient – 40 to 130
    • • Oil Temp °C
    • • Takeoff/Max - 10 to 105
    • • IDLE - -40 to 105 (grnd), 10 to 105 (flt), 106 to 110 (ground ops at and below 20% torque)
    • • Start - -40min
    • • Transient – 106 to 110 (10 mins)
  6. b. Oil System Malfunction or Low Oil Pressure - Critical Action Items
    • • *Terminate maneuver
    • • *Check oil pressure; if oil pressure is normal, continue operations
    • • *PCL – Minimum necessary to intercept ELP; avoid unnecessary PCL movements
    • • CAUTION
    • • Higher power settings may aggravate the existing condition
    • • *PEL - execute
  7. c. Electrical System Failures - Generator Inoperative
    • • Loss of generator also means loss of the systems powered on the generator bus (if the bus tie is open) and loss of battery charging.
    • • If generator fails and cannot be restored, electrical load must be reduced to provide maximum endurance on remaining battery power.
    • • Generator will not function anytime the starter is not in NORM.
  8. c. Electrical System Failures - Gen Bus failure procedures
    • • BUS TIE switch – NORM
    • • NOTE
    • With an operating generator and bus tie switch in NORM, the generator will continue to charge the battery and power the battery buses.
    • Generator bus items will remain inoperative
    • • Land as soon as practical
  9. c. Electrical System Failures - Gen Bus failure Cockpit displays
    • • Instrumentation - Left MFD, Air data computer (red X’s on Airspeed, altitude, VSI, etc) Lost
    • • Navigation – VHF NAV (VOR), DME, Transponder, TCAS
    • • Communication – COM1 (UHF)
    • • Others – IAC2, Pitot Heat, Radar Altimeter, TAD, Speed Brake, Air conditioning, Fuel Balance
  10. c. Electrical System Failures - Battery Bus Failure
    • • NOTE
    • With a battery bus failure, the PDF will be the default display. EICAS and NAV can be accessed using menu page
    • BAT BUS will illuminate if there is an actual loss of the battery busy (and associated avionics buses), or if the current limiter on the battery bus side has failed
    • • Indications – BAT Bus warning and multiple failures of items on the battery bus with associated EICAS messages
    • • Generator is still supply the generator bus and charging the battery.
  11. c. Electrical System Failures - Battery Bus failure procedures
    • • Descent below 10,000 MSL – initiate (as required)
    • • WARNING
    • OBOGS will be inoperative once the main battery is depleted or with battery failure
    • • NOTE
    • Cockpit will depressurize when power to the battery bus is lost
    • • BUS TIE switch – open
    • • NOTE
    • Place BUS TIE switch to OPEN to isolate the generator bus from any potential battery or battery bus faults
    • • AUX BAT switch – ON
    • • NOTE
    • Backup flight instrument and VHF standby will be powered for ~30 mins by the aux battery.
    • Plan to extend gear with emergency extension system.
    • Emergency flaps powered by the main battery through the hot battery bus as long as main battery has not failed
    • With normal flap extension and a loss of power to the battery bus, flaps will retract
    • Landing gear and flap position indicators will not be powered
    • • Standby VHF – On
    • • Land as soon as practical
  12. c. Electrical System Failures - Battery Bus Failure
    • • Instrumentation – Middle, Right MFD
    • • Communication – All UFCP functions
    • • Navigation – Execute function for FMS operations
    • • Others – IAC 1, Normal landing gear control, Normal flap control, Inflow Sys (bleed air/pressurization), gear and flap position indicators, Rudder, Aileron, Elevator Trim, PMU
  13. c. Electrical System Failures - Bus Tie Inoperative
    • • If the BUS TIE caution illuminates in flight, the battery bus and generator bus have been disconnected at the bus bar crosstie.
    • • If other caution/warnings are present, refer to the appropriate procedure
    • • If no other annunciations occur, the generator bus will continue to operate normally and the battery bus will continue to operate as long as battery power exists.
    • • Turn off non-essential equipment on the battery bus to prolong the battery power
  14. c. Electrical System Failures - Bus Tie Inoperative Procedure
    • • BUS TIE – NORM
    • • Land as soon as practical
    • • NOTE
    • Expect ~30 mins of useful battery power
    • Turn off non-essential items on battery bus
    • Cockpit will depressurize when power to the battery bus is lost
  15. d. Avionics Failures
    • • NOTE
    • • During all electronic display failures, pilot should confirm indications in both cockpits, reference alternate data sources or backup instruments, and check applicable circuit breakers
    • • Pilot should assess the severity of the emergency and equipment lost prior to resetting or opening any circuit breakers
  16. d. Avionics Failures - Individual IAC failure
    • • Backup flight instruments – reference as required
    • • IAC (1 – left front, 2 – right front) – check, reset if open
    • • Land as soon as practical
  17. d. Avionics Failures - Dual IAC failure
    • • Backup flight instruments – reference as required
    • • NORM/REPEAT switch (both UFCPs) – Norm (both cockpits)
    • • IAC1 and IAC2 circuit breakers (front left and front right) – check, reset if open
    • • Land as soon as practical
  18. d. Avionics Failures - IRU failure
    • • Backup flight instrument – reference as required
    • • IRS circuit breaker (left and right front) – check, reset if open
    • • Place aircraft in straight and level unaccelerated flight and monitor alignment status
    • • Land as soon as practical
  19. d. Avionics Failures - UFCP failure
    • • NOTE
    • Functions executed with the UFCP are not functional with UFCP inoperative:
    • - FMS execute
    • - System Mag/True heading toggle
    • - System GS/CAS/TAS HUD speed toggle
    • - Radio tuning with UFCP
    • Procedure
    • • UFCP circuit breaker (left front or left rear) – check, reset if open
  20. d. Avionics Failures - MFD failures
    • • NOTE
    • Failure of a single MFD will result in PFD and EICAS display only and loss of ability to manipulate the display to the FMS MENU
    • Proceudre
    • • NORM/REPEAT switch in failed cockpit – REPEAT
    • • MFD circuit breaker (left MFD on right console, Right and center MFD on left console)
    • • Backup flight instrument – reference as required
  21. e. Fuel System Failures - Fuel PX warning light
    • If engine fuel feed pressure drops below 10 psi, and the boost pump fails to engage automatically, the FUEL PX warning will illuminate
    • If engine fuel feed pressure is fluctuating at or below 10PSI, the boost pump will alternately cycle on and off, illuminating and extinguishing the BOOST PUMP advisory
    • Low pressure may be caused by blocked fuel line, low pressure pump failure, fuel leak, low pressure switch failure, or failure of the oil scavenge pump
    • Procedure
    • • PEL – Execute
    • •NOTE
    • If FUEL PX warning remains on, engine-driven high pressure fuel pump is suction feeding. Limit is 10 hours
    • • BOOST PUMP switch – ON
    • •CAUTION
    • Unless a greater emergency exist, do not reset BOOST PUMP circuit breaker if open
  22. e. Fuel System Failures - Fuel imbalance
    • The automatic fuel balancing system maintains fuel load to within 20 lbs in each wing
    • FUEL BAL caution may be activated by fault in autobalance system (fuel probe or EDM failure), fuel gauge indicates greater than 30 lbs imbalance for more than 2 mins
    • • Fuel gauges – verify imbalance
    • •NOTE
    • If FP FAIL caution, refer to Fuel Probe Malfunction checklist
    • If a fuel leak is suspected, refer to leaking fuel from wing procedure
    • • FUEL BAL circuit breaker (right front) – check, reset if open
    • One reset attempt only
    • •NOTE
    • The pilot should assess the severity of the emergency and equipment lost prior to resetting or opening any circuit breaker
    • • FUEL BAL switch – MAN/RESET (M FUEL BAL advisory illuminates)
    • •CAUTION
    • Do not attempt to manually balance fuel if FP FAIL is illuminated. Imbalance indication may not be correct and manual balance attempts may cause or aggravate imbalance
    • • MANUAL FUEL BAL switch – to low tank
    • • Fuel gauges – Monitor
    • • MANUAL FUEL BAL switch – OFF, when imbalance is corrected
    • •If system is return to autobalance, monitor for correct operation
    • •NOTE
    • If fuel imbalance remains constant or increases, consider fuel in the wing that is not feed to be trapped
  23. e. Fuel System Failures - Fuel leak
    • FUEL BAL caution may illuminate if leaking fuel overboard from either wing
    • • Aircraft structure – visually inspect for signs of leakage
    • • FUEL BAL switch – MAN/RESET
    • • MANUAL FUEL BAL switch – to non-leaking tank
    • The manual fuel balance switch may be left set to the non-leaking tank for the duration of the flight to maximize remaining fuel and endurance
    • •NOTE
    • With a full lateral fuel imbalance (one tank full, one empty) sufficient lateral authority exists to control the aircraft (no crosswind). Expect increased lateral stick forces
    • • MANUAL FUEL BAL switch – to leaking tank once empty
    • • Land as soon as possible
  24. e. Fuel System Failures - Low Fuel Level
    • Illumination of L or R FUEL LO caution indicates that approximately 110 pounds (16 gallons) of usable fuel remains in affected wing tank
  25. f. Hydraulic System Failures
    • • Normal operation of landing gear, flaps, speed brake, and nosewheel steering should be considered unavailable when the HYD FL LO caution is illuminated and pressure is below 1800 psi, or when hydraulic pressure is rapidly decreasing toward or reads 0 psi.
    • • Hydraulic pressure transmitter fails, Hyd pressure will read 0 or some other abnormal (out of limits), but hyd systems should operate normally.
    • • With EHYD PX LO caution, emergency landing gear and flap extension should be considered inoperative.
  26. f. Hydraulic System Failures - Indications
    • • HYD PX LO
    • • EHYD PX LO
    • • Hydraulic read 0 or rapidly decreasing to 0
    • • Out of limits
  27. f. Hydraulic System Failures - HYD FL LO or EHYD PX LO caution light Procedure
    • • Hydraulic pressure – check
    • •NOTE
    • May indicate fluid leak in either hydraulic system. If the leak is on the emergency side and is of small enough flow rate that it does not activate the hydraulic fuse, all fluid could leak out of both systems and a gear-up landing would be required. Unless fuel range is a factor, lower gear (and flaps if desired) prior to hyd fluid depletion
    • Loss of Hydraulic pressure (out of limits, decreasing toward or reads 0) without illumination of EHYD PX LO or HYD PX LO may indicate engine-driven hyd pump failure
    • With HDY FL LO caution and hydraulic pressure indicates 0 psi, check HYD SYS circuit breaker (left front console). Reset if open
    • • Airspeed – 15 KIAS or below
    • • Landing gear handle – DOWN
    • •NOTE
    • Low hydraulic pressure (below 1800 psi) will require emergency landing gear extension.
    • • Flaps – extend (as required)
    • •NOTE
    • May require emergency landing gear handle to be pulled prior to extending flaps
  28. g. OBOGS System Malfunction
    • • If the engine has failed or been shutdown, refer to OBOGS Inoperative procedures
    • • OBOGS FAIL warning indicates the OBOGS system is no longer producing sufficient oxygen concentration or pressure
    • • May indicate a failure of the OBOGS heat exchanger, concentrator, bleed air supply, electrical system interface, or excessive system leakage
    • • OBOGS failure may be accompanied by reduced pressure and/or quantity of breathing gas and my result in hypoxia symptoms if corrective action is not taken immediately.
  29. g. OBOGS System Malfunction / Inoperative - Indications
    • • OBOGS FAIL warning
    • • Reduced pressure
    • • Reduced quantity of breathing gas
    • • Hypoxia symptoms
  30. g. OBOGS System Malfunction - Procedure
    • •WARNING
    • If the battery fails, OBOGS will be inoperative
    • • *PCL – advance
    • •NOTE
    • Advance PCL as required to extinguish OBOGS FAIL warning.
    • At low bleed air pressure conditions (PCL idle at high altitudes), bleed air pressure bay drop sufficiently to momentarily illuminate the OBOGS FAIL warning. This does not necessarily indicate an OBOGS failure
    • • If OBOGS FAIL extinguishes, continue flight
    • • OBOGS – check (both
    • • - OBOGS supply lever – on
    • • - OBOGS concentration lever – MAX
    • • - OBOGS pressure lever – Emergency
    • •WARNING
    • It is possible to experience hypoxia symptoms if OBOGS has malfunctioned and altitude > 10,000 ft
    • •CAUTION
    • When breathing oxygen under increased pressure, breathe at a rate and depth slightly less than normal to preclude hyperventilation
    • •NOTE
    • The OBOGS FAIL warning will illuminate if both supply levers are set to OFF with the engine running
    • • OBOGS inoperative procedure – execute
  31. g. OBOGS System Inoperative Procedure
    • •WARNING
    • If hypoxia is experienced or suspected, land as soon as conditions permit
    • Anytime cabin pressure exceeds 10,000 feet and either OBOGS and/or cabin pressure is lost, an emergency descent to a cabin altitude of 10,000 or below must be accomplished.
    • Emergency oxygen is required when OBOGS is lost and cabin pressure exceeds 10,000 ft pressure equivalent.
    • Once emergency oxygen is activated, descent below 10,000 must be accomplished within 10 minutes
    • • *Green Ring – Pull (as required)
    • •CAUTION
    • When breathing oxygen under increased pressure, breathe at a rate and depth slightly less than normal to preclude hyperventilation
    • •NOTE
    • When the emergency oxygen system is actuated, high pressure air may make verbal comms more difficult
    • Once activated, emergency oxygen cannot be shut off and will flow until depleted (~10 mins)
    • • Descent below cabin altitude of 10,000 ft – initiate
    • • Disconnect main oxygen supply hose from CRU-60/P
    • •NOTE
    • Avoid inadvertently disconnecting comm cable
    • Disconnecting main oxygen supply hose is recommend as it improves breathing capability by providing pressure relief and improves anti suffocation capability.
    • Also prevent emergency oxygen from backflowing to main OBOGS and reducing time available
    • • OBOGS – off (both)
    • • Land as soon as practical
  32. g. OBOGS System - Zeolite dust in oxygen mask
    • Malfunction of OBOGS concentrator beds, which releases zeolite and binder material into the breathing system
    • • Indications
    • • - Respiratory irritation
    • • - Coughing
    • • - Presence of white dust in mask
    • •Procedure steps
    • • Green ring – pull as required
    • •WARNING
    • OBOGS concentrator may malfunction resulting in zeolite dust in breathing system without an illumination of the EICAS.
    • Indications include respiratory irritation, coughing, or presence of white dust in mask
    • Adequate oxygen concentration is still available
    • Prolonged inhalation of dust should be avoided
    • Emergency bottle provides 10 mins of oxygen. Must be below 10,000 altitdue before depleted to avoid hypoxia
    • •CAUTION
    • Breathe at a rate and depth slightly less than normal to preclude hyperventilation
    • •NOTE
    • Emergency oxygen may make comms difficult
    • Emergency oxygen can not be stopped once activated
    • • Descent below cabin altitude of 10,000 feet – initiate
    • • Disconnect main oxygen supply hose from CRU-60/P
    • •NOTE
    • Avoid inadvertently disconnecting comms
    • Disconnecting the main oxygen supply hose is recommended to improve breathing by providing pressure relief and improves anti-suffocation capabilities
    • • OBOGS – OFF (Both)
    • • Oxygen mask – remove (below 10,000 ft cabin altitude)
    • • Land as soon as practical
    • OBOGS TEMP caution indicates failure of the OBOGS heat exchanger
    • •Procedure
    • • Green ring – Pull (as required)
    • •WARNING
    • 10 mins of emergency oxygen. Be below 10000 ft altitude before emergency oxygen is depleted
    • •CAUTION
    • Breathe at rate and depth less than normal
    • •NOTE
    • Verbal comms may be difficult
    • Once activated, emergency oxygen can not be shut off
    • • Descent below cabin altitude of 10000 ft -initiate
    • • Disconnect main oxygen supply hose from CRU-60/P
    • •NOTE
    • Avoid disconnecting comms
    • Disconnecting may improve breathing capability
    • • OBOGS – OFF 9 (both)
    • • Land as soon as practical
  34. h. Trim System Malfunctions
    • • When trim interrupt is depressed, or when trim disconnect switch is set to disconnect, all trim systems are disengaged and the TAD is disconnected.
    • • When an individual trim system circuit breaker is pulled, the respective trim system will be inoperative.
    • • If rudder trim circuit breaker is pulled, automatic TAD correction inputs for power and configuration changes will be unavailable
  35. Runaway Trim
    • • Trim interrupt button (control stick) – depress and hold
    • • Airspeed – as required to reduce control forces
    • •NOTE
    • Except when trim is at full nose down, reducing airspeed to 110-150 KIAS will reduce control forces
    • Adding power will cause a pitch up/yaw left, while reducing will cause a pitch down/yaw right.
    • With full nose down trim, cruise and approach as fast as practical to reduce pitch forces
    • • Trim Interrupt button – release
    • • AIL/EL TRIM or RUD TRIM circuit breaker(s) (left front console) – pull as required
    • •NOTE
    • At typical final approach speeds, aileron forces remain relatively light in the event of full aileron trim runaway. Leaving the AIL/EL TRIM circuit breaker in during aileron trim malfunctions will enable the pilot to use pitch trim when necessary
    • This will restore trim to operative axes
    • • Controllability check – as required
  36. Stuck/Failed Trim
    • • TRIM Disconnect switch (left console) – NORM
    • • AIL/EL TRIM or RUD TRIM circuit breaker(s) – check, reset if open
    • •NOTE
    • If the elevator trim failed during high speed cruise or descent, the stick force will increase to approximately 10 pounds as the aircraft is slowed for approach and during landing.
    • Approximate max forces for aileron trim or rudder trim are 5 pounds and 20 pounds respectively.
  37. TAD failure
    • TAD FAIL caution indicates that the TAD has failed.
    • IF the TAD fails, automatic rudder trim correction inputs are unavailable.
    • Loss of TAD increases pilot workload but has no other impact on mission capability
    • • TAD Circuit breaker (right front console) – check in or pull and reset
    • • TRIM AID switch – Engage after TAD FAIL caution extinguishes
    • •NOTE
    • If TAD FAIL remains illuminated, notify maintenance personally after landing and leave the BAT and AVIONICS MASTER switches ON until TAD failure code lights, labeled L1 through L4, in the right aft avionics bay are inspected.
    • If battery or avionics master is turned off, the TAD failure codes will be lost
  38. i. PEL
    • • PEL should be executed whenever indications of a possible engine failure exist and/or when directed by the checklist.
    • • Use power, airspeed, altitude, and configuration to intercept and maintain the emergency landing pattern profile
    • • PEL emphasizes energy management through use of existing power, reducing drag, and gaining altitude as necessary
    • • Crews should not delay configuration to correct low energy.
    • • Use power as soon as a low energy state is recognized
    • • WARNING
    • • If engine should fail during PEL, refer to Engine Failure during Flight and transition to Forced Landing Procedure
    • • If rate of descent (VSI while stabilized at 125 KIAS with gear, flaps, and speedbrake up and 4 to 6% torque) is greater than 1500 fpm, increase torque to achieve ~1350 – 1500 fpm.
    • • If engine power is insufficient to produce a rate of descent less than 1500 fpm, set PCL to OFF.
    • • Once on profile, if engine is vibrating excessively or indications of failure are imminent, set PCL to OFF
    • • Engine failure or shutdown will disable bleed air systems and may cause significant canoy icing and/or fogging.
    • • CAUTION
    • • Inducing yaw (side slip) with a known engine/oil malfunction could result in impaired windshield visibility due to oil leakage spraying onto windshield.
  39. PEL Critical Action Items
    • • *Turn to nearest suitable field
    • • *Climb or accelerate to intercept ELP
    • • *Gear, flaps, speedbrake – up
    • Conduct a systematic check of aircraft and instruments for additional signs of impending engine failure
    • Evaluate status of engine as time and conditions permit.
    • Look for signs of impending engine malfunction, such as oil system, chip light, fire, or FOD. In these cases, turning the BOOST PUMP on may provide undesirable immediate relight
    • •NOTE
    • Do not set boost pump and ignition to ON for engine malfunctions.
    • • BOOST PUMP switch – as required
    • • IGNITION switch – as required
    • Plan to intercept emergency landing pattern at or below high key in appropriate configuration and a minimum airspeed of 120 KIAS
    • •NOTE
    • With uncontrollable high power, the pilot must shut down the engine once landing is assured
  40.  How to determine if you can make a suitable runway (reach DEGA)
    • ½ DME + High Key + field elevation
  41. DEGA - Sufficient altitude/DEGA
    • • Reduce power to 4-6% torque
    • • Safely expedite using 360s, bow-ties, S-turns, slips, lower gear early, or any combination of methods to dissipate excess energy
  42. DEGA - Insufficient altitude/DEGA
    • Add power (as required by emergency) and climb at 140 KIAS (best rate) to reach what you calculate as minimum AGL altitude to reach suitable airfield
  43. DEGA - Weather conditions preclude aircraft from climbing to sufficient altitude/DEGA
    • Add power (as required by the emergency) and accelerate towards suitable airfield until DEGA distance is reached
  44. j. Landing Gear Emergency Extension
    • Do not use the landing gear emergency extension checklist unless directed by the Landing Gear malfunction, Hydraulic System Malfunctions, Battery Bus Inoperative, or the Battery and Generator Failure checklist.
  45. j. Landing Gear Emergency Extension
    •  Procedural steps/checklist
    • •NOTE
    • Landing gear and flap retraction is not possible once the Emergency landing gear handle has been pulled
    • • Airspeed – Reduce to 150 KIAS or below
    • • Gear Handle – DOWN
    • •CAUTION
    • After an engine compartment fire, extension of the landing gear may result in nose gear failure upon touchdown
    • •NOTE
    • If unable to place landing gear handle down, proceed to step 3. Emergency gear handle will cause the landing gear to extend and lock down regardless of gear handle position
    • • EMER LDG GR handle – pull
    • •NOTE
    • A pull extension of ~ .75 inches and actual pull force in excess of 80 lbs has proven necessary to actuate the emergency landing gear extension system
    • Any electrical failure which causes the INST circuit breaker to trip will cause the gear position indicator lights to be inoperative
    • • Landing gear down indicator lights – check
    • •NOTE
    • Normal safe indications with electrical power after using emergency gear handle is 3 green (gear) and 3 red (2 red main gear inboard doors and 1 red in gear handle)
    • As pressure in accumulator diminishes, operation of gear and flaps may be slower than normal and EHYD PX LO may illuminate
    • • Flaps – as required
    • •WARNING
    • Once on the ground and stopped, if any landing gear position light indicates unsafe, do not taxi or tow aircraft until gear safety pins have been properly installed.
    • •CAUTION
    • Do not land or taxi across raised arresting cables with main gear doors open
    • • Landing with Unsafe Gear Indications checklist - execute
  46. k. Back-up Flight Instrument
     Completely independent of the Integrated Avionics System
  47. k. Back-up Flight Instrument - Information displayed
    • Attitdue, altitude, airspeed, VSI, altimeter, heading, and slip/skid indicator
  48. k. Back-up Flight Instrument - Main and Backup power source
    • • Main – Battery Bus
    • • Backup – Aux Bat Bus
  49. k. Back-up Flight Instrument - Failure
    • • Place aircraft in straight and level unaccelerated flight
    • • STBY INST circuit breaker (left front/left rear) – check, reset if open
    • • AFT STBY circuit breaker (left front) check, reset if open
    • • Land as soon as practical
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