Micro1- Intro

  1. What is the triangle of antimicrobial therapy?
    • defense mechanisms of animal <--> infection
    • drug disposition (ADME) <--> drug side effects in animal
    • organism death or inhibition by drug <--> resistance of microbe to drug
  2. What are the characteristics of "drug disposition"?
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Elimination
  3. Describe the absorption aspect of drug disposition.
    • depends on route of administration
    • Parenteral: IV has maximum bioavailability
    • Oral: bioavailability impacted by whether drug is weak acid or base (weak acids absorbed best)
    • Topical: depends on skin vascularity and drug properties
  4. When given enterally, ________ drugs are absorbed better than ________ drugs.
    weak acid; weak base
  5. What is Vd?
    Volume of distribution= volume of tissue to which a drug would be distributed, if present at same conc as measured in plasma
  6. Higher Vd-->
    penetration to more tissue
  7. Vd is impacted by...
    lipophilicity and binding to plasma proteins
  8. Describe the metabolism aspect of drug disposition.
    • LIVER METABOLISM (most common)
    • Phase I: cytochrome P450--> reduction and oxidation--> activation , inactivation, no change, toxicity
    • Phase II: conjugation via glucuronidation (poor in cats), sulfation (poor in pigs), acetylation (poor in dogs)--> inactivation
    • Elimination: urine or bile/ feces
  9. What are potential types of side effects of drugs?
    • dose-related/ conc-dependent
    • idiosyncratic- NOT conc-dependent, rather individual animal-dependent
  10. What microbes have acquired resistance [big deal rn]? (4)
    • Staphylococcus
    • Entercoccus
    • gram negative enterics
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  11. Contrast intrinsic resistance with acquired resistance.
    • Intrinsic: resistance due to inherent metabolic attributes of the organism
    • Acquired: organism should be susceptible to antimicrobial BUT is not, due to mutations or acquired DNA (plasmids, transposons, bacteriophage)
  12. What are the common clinically relevant aerobic/ facultative gram positive bacteria?
    • Cocci: Streptococcus, Staphylcoccus, Enterococcus
    • Filamentous rods: Actinomyces, Nocardia
    • Roads: Corynebacterium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Truperella, Rhodococcus
    • Giant rods: Bacillus
  13. What are the common clinically relevant aerobic/ facultative gram negative bacterial?
    • Enteric: E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter [<-- coliforms], Citrobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Salmonella, Campylobacter
    • Non-enterics: Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Histophilus, Bordatella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Francisella, Moraxella
  14. What are the clinically important gram positive obligate anaerobes? (3)
    • Clostridium
    • some Actinomyces
    • Peptostreptococcus
  15. What are the clinically important gram negative obligate anaerobes? (4)
    • Bacterioides
    • Fusobacterium
    • Prevotella
    • Porphyromonas
  16. Describe Mycobacteria.
    gram + rods, acid fast
  17. What are the 4 genera of spirochetes?
    • Leptospira
    • Borrelia
    • Brachyspira
    • Treponema
  18. Describe Mycoplasma.
    • fastidious
    • no cell wall (neither gram neg or pos)
  19. What are intracellular fastidious or arthropod-borne microbes? (6)
    • Ehrlichia
    • Coxiella
    • Bartonella
    • Anaplasma
    • Chlamydophila
    • Chlamydia
  20. What is the difference between colonization, infection, and contamination?
    • Colonization: bacteria propagate while maintaining a commensal or symbiotic relationship with host
    • Infection: bacteria invade host tissue and cause pathology (damage and inflammation)
    • Contamination: mechanical transfer of bacteria to site
  21. In a cat or dog, which beta-strep is most likely (from any body site)?
    Steptococcus canis
  22. What microbes affect the integument in cats (commonly)? (2)
    • Staphylococcus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  23. What microbes are commonly isolated from wounds/ draining tracts in cats? (9)
    • Staphylococcus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Pasteurella multocida
    • Actinomyces
    • Nocardia
    • Enterics
    • Streptococcus canis
    • Anaerobes
    • Radpidly growing Mycobacteria
  24. What are the sterile body sites? (10)
    • Blood
    • Cystocentesis urine
    • Thoracocenteis fluid
    • Abdomenocentesis fluid
    • Arthrocentesis fluid
    • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Parenchymous organs
    • Fetal stomach contents
    • Facial sinuses, middle ear
    • Muscle, fat, subcutis
  25. All beta-streps are sensitive to __________.
Card Set
Micro1- Intro
vetmed micro1