Pediatric Nutrition Exam 1

  1. Wellness
    positive state of health and well being
  2. Diet
    the foods and beverages consumed to nourish and support the body and its processes
  3. Early Childhood
    period from birth through age 8
  4. Neurons
    nerve cells of the brain
  5. Epigenetics
    the study of how genes are "turned on and off" by external factors such as diet, abuse, and stress
  6. Critical Periods
    unique periods of development
  7. Early Childhood Teachers
    all those who provide care and education for young people
  8. Context
    environment and circumstances that surround the child and affect the child's experiences
  9. Oral Health
    dental, gum, and mouth health
  10. English Language Learners
    those who speak a language other than English in their hopes and who are learning English
  11. Ethnic
    groups with common national, tribal, religious, linguistic, racial, or cultural origins or backgrounds
  12. Low income
    refers to an amount estimated to be less than twice the federal poverty level
  13. Food insecurity
    Not having enough food at all times to maintain an active life; worrying that there may not be enough money to obtain sufficient food
  14. Overweight
    an excess of body fat that may lead to obesity; measured by a body mass index score in the 85th to 95th percentile.
  15. Obese
    a medical condition related to the excess accumulation of body fat that may have an adverse affect on health, measured by a body mass index score that is higher than 95th percentile
  16. Medical home
    an identified source of health care
  17. Disparities in health care
    refers to the fact that some individuals or groups of children are disproportionately at risk for disease and do not adequate access to health care
  18. Evidence Based practices
    interventions and strategies that have been evaluated through research and established as credible and significant toward reaching a desired goal, such as improving a particular skill, promoting knowledge, or achieving a specific quality standard.
  19. Developmentally appropriate practice
    approach that addresses the child's age and maturity, individual characteristics, and context in which the child grows and develops.
  20. Dispositions
    the values, beliefs, and other attitudes of the teacher that are put into action to promote positive outcomes in children
  21. Constructivist approach
    an approach in which children build their own knowledge by fitting new information and ideas with what they already know
  22. Mental structures
    the ways children understand and think about the world
  23. Organization
    inborn capability that allows children to use the simple processes of learning to build complex mental structures
  24. Adaptation
    result of assimilation and accommodations; new information becomes part of the child's working mental structures
  25. assimilation
    process of taking in new information and fitting it into existing mental structures
  26. Accommodation
    process of taking in new information and creating new mental structures
  27. Disequilibrium
    uneasiness that children experience when faced with new challenges
  28. Equilibrium
    state of balance or calmness experienced by children during the learning process
  29. Scaffolding
    process of structuring learning experiences around existing knowledge and offering challenge that is just beyond the child's current level of understanding and ability
  30. Brain plasticity
    brain's ability to be flexible and change when new information is learned
  31. Developmental domains
    areas of development
  32. Center-based approach
    approach in which the classroom environment is designed around particular learning centers, such as the manipulatives or block areas, the science table, dramatic play corner, or library
  33. Hands-on and experiential
    using sensory capabilities to inspect, explore, and learn
  34. Incidental learning
    unplanned, accidental, and emergent learning opportunities
  35. Process-oriented activities
    learning activities that focus on process rather than product
  36. Child-selected activities
    activities in which children actively develop the course of play
  37. Teacher-directed activities
    activities in which children are guided by the teacher through each step of the learning process
  38. Early intervention services
    services provided to infants and children, ages birth through 3 years, who have an identified disability, and their families
  39. Special education services
    services for children with disabilities, ages 3 to 21 years, to support their educational development and preparation for further education, employment, and independent living
  40. Individualized family services plan (IFSP)
    an educational and family services plan for infants and children, ages birth through 3 years, that describes the child's disability and outlines goals for supporting the child's appropriate development.
  41. Individualized Education Program (IEP)
    an educational plan drafted by families, special education specialists, and teachers for children ages 3 to 21 to describe the child's disability and outline goals for appropriate education
  42. Relationship between Nutrition and Cognitive Development
    • healthy kids learn better
    • decreased physical activity
    • increased apathy
    • reduced social interaction
    • lower cognitive functions
    • reduced concentration
    • retard physical growth
    • low test scores
    • reduced ability to complete complex tasks
  43. Maslow's Hierarchy
    • Bottom to top:
    • physiological
    • safety
    • love/belonging
    • esteem
    • self actualization
  44. Why don't children all have same outcomes?
    • not same opportunities
    • healthcare/dental care
    • neighborhoods, schools
    • Biological: genes, susceptibilities
    • Social: race, socioeconomic status, edu level, health behaviors
  45. How can we help?
    • know resources
    • reinforce good habits
    • provide opportunities
  46. Teacher-directed activities
    • guided by teachers by each step
    • children are passive participants
    • aim to teach specific skill
    • listening, responding, following directions
  47. Child-directed activities
    • children actively develop course of play
    • allows freedom
    • encourages self management
    • self-directed
  48. Parents partnership
    • daily communication
    • offering services, resources
    • look for behavior changes, notify parents
    • ensure trust and don't break that
    • be flexible and accepting of parental concerns
    • model correct behaviors
  49. Building blocks for wellness
    • nutrition-nutrients impacting growth
    • health- physical and mental well being and no disease
    • safety- keeping kids from harm
  50. 4 Domains of development for children
    • cognitive: memory, problem-solving, logic, symbols
    • language: listening/speaking, expression, literacy
    • physical: muscle control, coordination
    • social-emotional: trust, expressing appropriately, choices
  51. What difference does poverty make?
    • inadequate immunizations
    • common infectious diseases
    • sleep deficits
    • vision/hearing
    • nutritional deficits
    • dental problems
    • mental
  52. Neighborhood/Environment
    • poorly performing schools
    • higher crime rates
    • substandard housing
    • limited access to grocery stores and healthy food choices
  53. Neighborhood/environment
    • decrease in number of kids reading at home
    • decrease in ability to perform in school outings
    • number of caretakers with poor mental health
    • increase negative behaviors
    • decrease in school engagement
  54. Health habits and concepts
    • nutritional meals
    • ensuring children get enough sleep
    • regular med provider
    • immunizations
    • keeping kids at home
    • encouraging physical activity
    • positive experiences with food
    • modeling
    • doing it with them
  55. Trends that might affect wellness
    • poverty
    • obesity
    • nursing mothers
    • food insecurity
    • neighborhoods
    • education
    • homelessness
  56. incidental learning/teachable moments
    unplanned, accidental opportunities
  57. developmentally appropriate practice
    • developmentally appropriate experiences
    • individually appropriate experiences
    • cultural contexts of experiences
  58. How do children learn?
    • modeling
    • play
    • exploring
    • cause/effect
    • practicing
    • construct knowledge
    • assimilation
    • accommodation
    • social interactions
Card Set
Pediatric Nutrition Exam 1
Exam 1 PedNut Chapters 1-2