The United Nations • When was it created?• How many countries participated then?• How many members now?• How many regional groups are there?• How many members per region?• When did Mexico enter?• What’s the name of its guiding treaty?• What are the four purposes of the UN?• What are its six main organs?
UN # of members in each group
- African Group: 54
- Asia-Pacific Group: 54
- East-European Group: 23
- Latin American and Caribbean Group: 33
- Western-European and Others Group: 29
UN What about...
- • Turkey?
- • Kiribati?
- • USA?
UN principal organs
- Trusteeship Council
- Security Council
- General Assembly
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
1. The Security Council
- • Initially made up of 11 states, currently 15.
- • 5 permanent members, plus 10 rotating ones (2 years).
- • Tasked with the responsibility for maintaining international peace and security
- It can make binding decisions
- Also, makes recommendations to the UNGA on the appointment of a new Secretary General + admission of new members
- • How to arrive at decisions? The voting rules are:
- • How does this contrast with the League of Nations?
SC permanent and rotating seats
- African group: P=0 R=3
- Asian-Pacific Group: P=1 R=2
- East-European Group: P=1 R=1
- Latin American and Caribbean Group: P=0 R=2
- Western-European and Others Group: P=3 R=2
1. The Security Council • When there is a threat to peace,
- Chapter VI
Article 33, 1; Article 38
- Chapter VII
Articles 39, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49
- Chapter VI and a half?
1. The Security Council 5 types of “peacekeeping”
- • Peacekeeping, but also...
- • Conflict prevention
- • Peacemaking
- • Peace building
- • Peace enforcement
How many current peacekeeping missions?
What are “Arria-Formula Meetings”?
- “Arria-Formula meetings”
- • informal
- • confidential
- • frank and private exchange of views
- • high representatives of governments or IOs
1. The Security Council The veto. How many resultions have gotten vetoed?
- 1946-1949: 41
- 1950-1959: 27
- 1960-1969: 15
- 1970-1979: 32
- 1980-1989: 45
- 19990-1999: 9
- 2000-2009: 14
- 2010-2015: 8
2. The General Assembly main characteristics
- • Decisions on ‘important questions’ pass by a 2/3 supermajority
- – Article 18, 2
- • Decisions on other issues pass by a simple
- – Article 18, 3
- • Recently, there is more interest in consensus.
- • Resolutions are not bindingrecommendations
- • However, they indicate the world opinion and comprise a moral authority.
The Non-Aligned Movement
- • Similarity of problems and interests:
- – mainentance of peace,
- – counteracting major power’s pressures,
- – the quest for independence,
- – opposing western (neo)colonialism and occupation,...
3. The Secretariat
- • The UN’s administrative apparatus. – Staff of around 40,000 people
- • Headed by the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the UNGA on recommendation of the UNSC.
- • The role of the Secretariat remains primarily bureaucratic (e.g. preparing the budget), except for the provisions of Article 99.
- – What does it say about the Secretary-General? • How many times has Art. 99 been invoked?
- • The Secretary-General lasts for 5 years (with the option of reappointment, but for only one more term).
- • Since its subject to veto, the position rotates from region to region.
Secretary Generals from 1946
- Tryve Lie: Western Europe; Feb 1946 – April 1953
- Dag Hammarskjöld: Western Europe; April 1953 – Sept. 1961
- U Thant: Asia; Nov. 1961 – Dec. 1971
- Kurt Waldheim: Western Europe; Jan. 1972 – Dec. 1981
- Javier Pérez de Cuéllar: Latin America and Caribb.; Jan 1982 – Dec. 1991
- Boutros Boutros-Ghali: Africa; Jan. 1992 – Dec. 1996
- Kofi Annan: Africa; Jan. 1997 – Dec. 2006
- Ban Ki-moon: Asia; Jan. 2007 – Present
4. The International Court of Justice
- Judiciary body of the UN.
- Only states may be parties.
- Resolutions are binding... – Art. 94, par. 2.
- ...but states must consent for the ICJ to even consider the case.
- May be asked for opinions on legal questions by the UNGA or other organs.
- 4. The International Court of Justice
- • Fifteen judges elected for nine years by UNGA and the UNSC.
- – The Secretary General provides the list of nominees
- – Each organ votes independently
- – Those who obtain 50%+1 of the votes in both are elected
- • When was the first female judge elected to the ICJ?
Judges per region (today)
- African Group: 3
- Asia-Pacific Group: 3
- East European Group: 2
- Latin American and Caribbean Group: 2
- Western-European and Others Group: 5
5. The Economic and Social Council
- Tasked with studies and reports regarding
- international economic, social, educational, health, and related matters
- –Recommendations to the UNGA regarding those matters (+human rights)
- – Assistance to the UNSC upon request
– Creation of commissions to perform its functions – International conferences regarding its matters
– Consultation with NGOs
- 5. The Economic and Social Council
- • 54 members, elected by the UNGA; 18 are shifted each year
- 3 year term, with a chance of immediate re- election
- Each member gets one vote
- Decisions are made by simple majority (of those present and voting)
- Number of seats at the ECOSOC
- African Group: 14
- Asia- Pacific Group: 11
- East-European Group: 6
- Latin American and Caribbean Group: 10
- Western- European Group: 13
- • Internally,
- – One substantive session each year.
- – One President and four vice-presidents elected for each session (subject to reelection)
6. The Trusteeship Council
- • A heir to the mandate system from the League of Nations.
- • Esentially, tasked with supervising and administering “trust territories” and their transit towards sovereignty.
- – Art. 76, 2.
• Which states?
- – Art. 77
- • Following Palau’s success in achieving self- determination, the Trusteeship had fulfilled its mission.
- – Meetings when necessary.
Administrating state, Trust territory and Date of Independence
- Australia: -Nauru (1968) -New Guinea (1975)
- Belgium: -Ruanda. Urundi (1962)
- France: -French Togoland (1960) -Cameroons (1960)
- Italy: -Somaliland (1960)
- New Zealand: -Western Samoa (1962)
- UK: -Togoland (1957) -Cameroons (1961) -Tanganyka (1963)
- US: -Pacific Islands? (PALAU)
The World Trade Organization What is it?
The WTO is an international organization for liberalizing trade between nations, which operates a system of trade rules and provides a forum for trade negotiations and settling trade disputes.
How did the WTO come to existence?
- • Previous to WWII, most negotiations regarding barriers to trade were bilateral.
- • Multilateral negotiations began soon after the end of WWII.
- – No ITO, but GATTsigned at Bretton Woods in 1947 by 23 countries (along with the IMF and WB)
- • After 1995, the WTO replaced the GATT.
- • Free trade (obviously)
- • Non-discrimination in trade: MFN and National Treatment
- • Negotiationstoensurefreertrad
- • Predictability through binding and transparency
- • Fair competition (versus dumping or export subsidies)
- • Development
- Provision of a forum for trade negotiations.
- Evaluation and rulings on trade complaints by members.
- Assistance to LDCs on trade issues. Administration of WTO agreements.
Tracking of changes in members’ trade policies.
- Ministerial Conference, with a General Council, where there are two meetings;
- General Council meeting as Trade Policy Review Body and Dispute Settlement Body
- There is also a Trade Negotiations Committee.
- There are committees on many things, such as Trade and Environment
- Inside the General Council there are:
- Council for trade in Goods
- Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
- Council for Trade in Services
- • Every body has representatives of every member country, but for different functions
- • + Secretariat, headed by the Director General, who currently is...?
- – Period of four years, up for reelection.
Dispute settlement WTO
- • First, consultations: bilateral resolution or mediation by the director-general
- • If that fails, panel: 3 or 5 experts from different countries who rule on the matter
- • In theory, the report is a recommendation, but...
- • Handling disputes through impartial processes • Trade liberalism
• Objective rules vs power status
Also, as a result from trade,
- • Lower costs, greater variety of goods and services, predictability, shields from interest groups
- • “Interference”
- • Favoring of richer countries – Greater representation
- – Agricultural goods and stagnation of negotiations – Intellectual property rights
– Product standards
- • Environmental protection
• Rights and safety issues for workers
The IMF What is it?
- An international organization designed to promote international monetary cooperation and attain stability in the monetary system.
- – The monetary system is the system of exchange rates and international payments which enable states to buy goods and services from each other.
How did the IMF come into existence?
- • Also conceived in the Bretton Woods agreements in 1944.
- • The idea was to discourage competitive depreciation in exchange rates.
- • Entered into operation in 1947
- • Originally, 29 signatory members; now...?
- • When did Mexico enter?
- • Regular examinations of members’ economic policies (surveillance)
- • Dissemination of economic information, research, and analysis.
- • Provision of financial assistance.
- • Provision of technical assistance , especially to LDCs
- Periodical (annual) visitations to review country policies and national, regional, and international economic and financial developments, as well as their impact on stakeholders
- Advice on exchange rates, monetary and fiscal policy, or even structural reforms
Dissemination of information IMF
- • Issuing of reports regarding members’ policies.
- • Documents considering trends and explanations of:
- – Growth
– Risks to stability
- • The scope of publications can be national, regional or international.
Financial assistance IMF
- • In order to correct balance of payments issues, the IMF provides temporary aid attached to commitments to policy adjustment
- – Only when there is no way of meeting international payments (debt, import payments) without harming international reserves.
- • Interest rates: too high? • Moral hazard?
Technical assistance IMF
- Member states are guided through: • Central bank reform
- • Tax system reform
- • The creation of institutions in charge of analysis and statistics.
- Board of Governors
- Executive Board
- Managing Director, Deputy Managing Directors
Quotas and power in the IMF
- • Each member state must contribute a certain volume of “quotas”; i.e. financial contributions.
- • Reviewed every five years.
- • These pay for operation costs plus all of the
IMF’s activities (e.g. financial aid).
- • They determine voting.
- • They determine access to loans.
Quotas and power in the IMF percetage of total votes
- US: 16.74
- Japan: 6.23
- Germany 5.81
- France: 4.29
- United Kingdom: 4.29
- China: 3.81
- Russia: 2.39
- Brazil: 1.71
- Mexico: 1.47
What is it? WB
- The “World Bank” is actually a set of two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association.
- Both seek to assist in the development process in order to promote economic and social progress.
How did it come to existence? WB
- The IBRD was aaaaaaaaalso created at Bretton Woods, in 1944.
- It came into operation in 1946.
- The IBRD’s mission back then was to help rebuild post-war Europe, but it has grown into the broader responsibility of financing economic development. The IDA was meant to aid that mission since its creation in 1960.
• How many members does the IBRD have? • How many members does the IDA have?
• When did Mexico enter each?
Functions where does this lead to? WB IBRD and IDA Reflective question.
- • The IBRD is primarily tasked with financing economic development, ending extreme poverty, and boosting shared prosperity in middle and low- income countries.
- • The IDA provides long-term interest-free loans, grants, and debt relief to the world’s poorest countries—it is “the fund of the poorest”.
- What is economic development?
Economic development WB
- Economic development is the improvement in the well-being of a nation’s people, considering levels of output and consumption, but also the quality of life beyond the material realm.
- • Indicators?
How is economic development achieved? WB
- The IBRD provides loans/ commitments to low- and middle-income countries, as well as a line of ‘products’ designed to mitigate economic risk.
- • Two examples:
– Falls in certain commodity prices
- • Also, technical and advisory assistance.
- The IDA lends money charging little to no interest and allowing for long periods of repayment, and also provides grants and debt relief (but based on poverty and credit-worthiness).
- – e.g. through the HIPC initiative, once countries have implemented poverty reduction strategies and structural reforms for development, they no longer have to pay their creditors (including the IDA, the IMF, the AfDB, and the IADB)
• IDA funds are to be used on projects related to...
- – Education
- – Health
- – Sanitation
- – Environmental safeguards
- – Infrastructure...
- • How many countries have “graduated”?
Where does the money come from?
- • The IBRD issues bonds to purchase money (repayment is guaranteed by member countries).
- • The IDA gets its funds from donor nations, who replenish its resources every three years.
- • Also determined by the economic prowess of its members: most of the voting power depends on the possession of stocks.
- • However, most votes are for administrative purposes, and consensus is favored
- The WB’s structure
- Jim Yong Kim President
- Board of Governors
- Executive Directors
- NGOs are formal, private, non-profit distributing, self-governing, voluntary organizations concerned with development, human rights, and social change.
- David Lewis, Non-Governmental Organizations, Management and Development (2014)
DEFINING NGOS characteristics
- Formal: institutionalized, with office bearers, regular meetings, and prevalence.
- Private: separate from government.
- Non-profit distributing: no financial surplus
- accrued to owners or directors.
- Self-governing: management of its own affairs.
- Voluntary: at least some participants are not paid.
WHAT DO THEY DO? NGOs
- They usually assist development, working as Implementers
- Providing services to the population, either directly (e.g. giving out food, running schools, providing healthcare) or indirectly (training authorities or other ag encies)
- Sometimes contracted by the government or by private agents
- Mostly as independent, temporary aide.
- Advocacy: speaking out for policy change and action that will address the root causes of problems confronted in the field (not just alerting of the problem)
- “Boomerang effect”.
- Innovation: providing new approaches to solve common issues (new technology, organization structures or research methods)
- Watchdogs: monitoring progress made by state authorities.
Partnerships refer to formal, deeply collaborative relationships with businesses, governments, donors, or other organizations, in which common goals are established and implementation is joint.
- CRITICISM NGOs
- How effective are they?
- What about accountability?
- Are they not neocolonial in nature?
Examples: Axe, Magnum, Dove, Lipton, Knorr, Hellman’s, Rexona, Ades, Ben & Jerry’s, Cornetto, Pond’s, Vaseline, Iberia,..
- On any given day, about two billion people use their products.
- 153rd biggest corporation by revenues; 116th with most full-time employees (almost 173,000)
- 43% of managers are female
Unilever: how it grew
- Started as a British soapmaking firm in the 1880s
- Mass-production techniques + advertising
- “Vertical integration”: purchased plantations since 1905 for raw materials
- Had purchased or merged with its major rivals by the end of the 1920s
- Expanded its range of goods after WWII; more than 1,600 brands by the end of the 1990s.
- •Restructuring to get rid of underperforming brands
- Unilever: political influence child hunger
- Unilever and WFP join forces in child hunger fight (2006)
- Unilever commits itself to provide expertise in nutrition and health as well as financial support to assist poor families in the developing world. The three-year partnership supports the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, specifically the first: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, and the second: Achieve universal primary education. [...] The overall objective of the partnership is to feed poor children and their families and improve their nutritional health.
- Unilever and WFP will focus their joint efforts on school feeding and nutrition education in schools, in addition to cause related marketing campaigns and employee engagement activities. “This partnership makes perfect sense,” said James Morris, WFP’s Executive Director. “Starting last year with its assistance to WFP during the tsunami, and later in Niger, Unilever has demonstrated its commitment to helping the hungry. Now two major players in the food world, Unilever, one of the biggest food producers, and WFP, the largest humanitarian agency, are joining forces to battle against child hunger.”
- Unilever: political influence tax burden
- Unilever threatens to quit UK over tax burden (2011)
- The chief executive of Unilever has warned that the company may move its operations offshore if the Government increases the tax and regulatory burden.
- Paul Polman, chief executive, said the company was already facing a tougher economic environment because consumers have less money to spend. “If on top of that we would get an additional regulatory or tax environment that would make us non-competitive that would be unfortunate for the UK," he told the Daily Mail.
- He added: "We do have choices where we put research laboratories, choices for manufacturing facilities, and choices where we put our senior management. Any responsible businessman needs to continue to assess that within an ever-changing global environment."
- If it left the UK, Unilever would be the biggest company to quit the country over the growing tax burden. [...] “We have to be sure when changes are contemplated [by the Government] that it takes into account what other countries do as well in Europe, or outside of Europe, to provide competitive corporate tax rates," he said.
What are they? Resistance movements
Resistance movements are organized efforts by some portion of the civil population of a state to resist an established government or occupying power with means varying from passive to violently active.
- What brings them about? resistant movements
- • Widespread grievances against the state:
- • Poverty, corruption, repression, lack of political freedoms...
- • Sometimes triggered by a critical event which sets off moral outrage.
- • Ideological critique of the regime.
- • Mobilizing organizations which facilitate the movement.
- Resistance movements
- • At times more violent than others.
• Their purpose: The G20
to serve as an informal forum that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability.
- The G20 characteristics
- • Meetings are held annually
- • Chaired by a troika (past, present, future); host country rotates
- – Who is the current president?
- • Temporary taskforce to manage meetings and coordinate work
- The European Union • How did it come to exist?
- • The enlargement process.
- • Its five main institutions.
The European Union: origins
- • 1952: ECSC began to work
- – Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, France, West Germany
- • 1958: EEC began to work
- – Common Market: same tariffs, free movement.
- • 1986: Single European Act
- • 1993: EU (Maastricht)
- • 1999: Euro as digital currency
What are the criteria?
- In essence, a state must be able to uphold the EU regime through
- 1. Solid democratic institutions
- 2. Human rights and Rule of law
- 3. Economic stability
- The European Union Its five main institutions
- – The European Parliament
- – The European Commission
- – The Council of the EU (or Council of Ministers)
- – The European Council
- – The European Court of Justice
The European Union
- • What does it do?
- • Since when does it exist?
- • What is its composition?
- – How many members are there?
- – President? Secretary General?
- – Elections? Re-election?
- • How often does it meet?
- • How are decisions made?