Contacts 1

  1. 1) Identify the acronym “I’M SAFE” in determing if you are ready and fit to fly.
    • a. Illness
    • b. Medication
    • c. Stress
    • d. Alcohol
    • e. Fatigue
    • f. Eating
  2. 2) Identify four factors that contribute to the aircrafts yawing tendency
    • a. Torque
    • b. Gyroscopic Precession
    • c. Slipstream Swirl
    • d. P-Factor
  3. 3) Identify the aircrafts reactions from a clockwise turning propeller (as viewed from the pilots’ seat) due to gyroscopic effect
  4. 4) Identify characteristic of secondary flight controls – Trim Devices
    • a. Used for reducing pilot workload
    • b. Consists of Trim Switches and Controls, TAD, Rudder Trim, Elevator & Aileron Trim
  5. 5) Identify the trim requirements for rudder and elevator during power and/or airspeed changes
    • Accelerate - Left / Down
    • Decelerate - Right / Up
    • Power + - Right / Down
    • Power - - Left / Up
  6. 6) Identify formula used in developing solid basic flying skills
    a. Power + Attitude = Performance
  7. 7) Identify the four components of airplane control with regard to attitude flying
    • a. Pitch Control
    • b. Bank Control
    • c. Yaw Control
    • d. Power Control
  8. 8) Identify the characteristics of a scan pattern
    • a. Look outside to see where going
    • b. Check aircraft with respect to horizon to check & maintain attitude
    • c. Check inside for proper power setting, instruments, and malfunctions
  9. 9) Identify the intent and use of one-third rule
    • a. Used for turns.
    • b. Roll out of turn 1/3 of bank angle before heading
    • i. Ex. AOB 30°, begin roll out 10° before desired heading
    • ii. If turning from 045° to 090°, begin roll out at 080°.
  10. 10) Identify the characteristics of a skid
    • a. Too much rudder during turn.
    • b. Nose is inside of the turn.
  11. 11) Identify characteristics of a slip
    • a. Too little rudder (or using opposite rudder)
    • b. Nose outside of turn
  12. 12) Identify wind effects and crab corrections to maintain desired ground track
    • a. Wind pushes the aircraft in the direction it is blowing.
    • b. In order to maintain desired ground track, aircraft must “crab” into wind
  13. 13) Identify the P.A.T principal.
    • a. Power. Attitude. Trim
    • b. The order in which you should modify aircraft
    • i. Increase/Decrease Power
    • ii. Adjust Nose Attitude
    • iii. Trim Aircraft for new Attitude
    • iv. Check power, readjust if necessary
    • v. Readjust Nose Attitude
    • vi. Retrim aircraft
  14. 14) Identify procedures for assuming control of the aircraft
    • a. 3 way change of controls
    • i. “You have the controls”
    • ii. “I have the controls”
    • iii. “You have the controls”
  15. 15) Identify characteristics of checklist discipline
    • a. Checklist are mandatory
    • b. Conducted in Challenge – Action – Response format
    • c. Checklist from memory:
    • i. Lineup check
    • ii. After Takeoff
    • iii. Ops Check
    • iv. Before Landing
  16. 16) Define Joker fuel as it relates to fuel considerations
    • a. Set at preplanned transition points.
    • b. Example
    • i. Joker 750 lbs might be used to depart working area to ensure enough fuel to accomplish patterns ops
  17. 17) Define Bingo fuel as it relates to fuel considerations
    a. Fuel at which recovery should be initiated to arrive at the intended destination with the required fuel
  18. 18) Identify characteristics related to ejection seat safety
    • a. “Respect the Seat”
    • b. Unintentional or improper firing can be fatal
    • c. Never enter or exit without safety pin installed
    • d. Don’t rest hands on handle or allow equipment to interfere with the ejection handle.
  19. 19) Identify characteristics for strapping into the ejection seat
    • a. All harness buckles and G suit zippers secure
    • b. Plug in G Suit then leg restraint garters and lower Koch Fittings
    • c. Attach main oxygen hose and emergency O2 host to CRU-60/P.
    • d. Upper fittings
    • e. Don helmet, lower viser
    • f. Attach 02 to CRU-60/P and plug into ICS
    • g. Buckle chin strap
    • h. Adjust seat and rudder pedals
  20. 20) Identify items related to engine starting procedures
    • a. After Cockpit Checklist, ensure prop area is clear, fire extinguisher available, and plane captain ready
    • b. Canopy closed.
    • c. PMU will auto abort if bad start, but be ready to manually abort start if it fails
    • d. Check brakes after startup before taxi
  21. 21) Identify Characteristics with taxiing the aircraft
    • a. Taxi with nosewheel steering on line.
    • b. Power above idle for uphill, sharp turns, etc.
    • c. Speed Controlled by Brakes
    • d. No faster than a person can walk in the line area
    • e. No faster than a person can trot outside the line area
    • f. Deflect aileron into wind
    • g. Means of steering
    • i. NWS
    • ii. Differential Braking
    • iii. Rudder
  22. 22) Identify when the after landing checklist is performed
    a. After the airplane has cleared the active runway and switching to ground
  23. 23) Identify various ALDIS lamp signals
    • On Ground/In Air
    • Steady Green - Cleared to Takeoff / Cleared to Land
    • Flashing Green - Cleared to Taxi / Return to land
    • White - Return to Start Point / N/A
    • Steady Red - Stop / Give way to other aircraft
    • Flashing Red - Taxi clear of runway / Waveoff Do not land
    • Alt Green/Red - Use extreme caution / Use extreme caution
  24. 24) Identify landing pattern visual wing references
    • a. Wingtip – Wingtip Bisects point
    • b. ¾ Wingtip – Orange meets White
    • c. 2/3 Wingtip – Fuel Cap
    • d. ¼ Wingtip – Canopy rail bisect wing
  25. 25) Define landing pattern terminology with regard to the abeam position
    a. Position in the racetrack pattern opposite the intended point of landing at pattern altitude
  26. 26) Identify the Touchdown Zone
    a. Area from intended point of landing extending to 500 feet beyond it
  27. 27) Identify proper condition that meet Pattern Interval
    • a. Aircraft ahead is abeam or behind your wingtip & completed at least 90°
    • b. Aircraft ahead has departed IAW local SOP or course rules
    • c. At tower controlled fields, above conditions met & cleared by controller
    • d. If preceding aircraft is full stop or you are a break aircraft, the proper interval for breaking behind another T-6 is 45° behind your wingtip
  28. 28) Identify characteristics of departure interval
    a. You are number one for departure when past the departure end of the runway (or as defined by local SOP), flaps up, and the aircraft upwind has either initiated the crosswind turn or raised the landing gear to depart
  29. 29) Identify Outlying Field Entry (OLF) procedures
    • a. Determine the duty runway
    • b. Fly to establish the aircraft at the appropriate initial point. At this point the aircraft shall be:
    • i. On extended runway centerline and on runway heading
    • ii. Wings level
    • iii. At break altitude (see local SOP)
    • iv. Airspeed in accordance with local SOP
    • c. When at the initial point, make the appropriate radio call
    • d. Fly from the initial point towards the runway maintaining altitude and airspeed, visually locate pattern traffic, and obtain wind information
  30. 30) Identify characteristics for the break
    • a. Procedure to transition the aircraft from normal cruise configuration to the landing configuration and position the aircraft on the downwind leg
    • b. Procedure:
    • i. Interval
    • ii. Execute Break
    • iii. 45°-60° AOB turn, reduce power (IDLE to ~10% torque), Speed Brake as Required. Maintain altitude. Trim for deceleration (Up/Right)
    • iv. “Below 150, Gear” – “Clear”. Lower landing gear
    • v. adjust the angle of bank to establish a ¾ - 1 wingtip distance on downwind
    • vi. Slow to 120 KIAS, Maintain Break altitude. Trim Deceleration
    • vii. Approaching 130 KIAS, retract the speed brake if extended, lower the nose and descend at 120 KIAS to pattern altitude (as directed by local SOP). No sooner than wings level on downwind, lower the flaps to the desired setting.
    • viii. Level off at pattern altitude using the P.A.T. principle:
    • 1. Power – approximately 31/42/52% for NO/TO/LDG setting
    • 2. Attitude – Stop the descent by initially setting a slightly nose-up attitude immediately followed by the 120 KIAS level flight attitude.
    • 3. Trim – Re-trim
    • ix. Once established on downwind with the flaps at the desired setting, conduct the Before landing checklist
  31. 31) Identify items observed within the landing pattern.
    • a. 30° AOB is desired with 45° AOB as the maximum. If a turn of greater than 45° AOB is required, wave off.
    • b. 120 KIAS with gear down and flaps up during upwind and crosswind. Configure and complete the before landing checklist once established on downwind. Trim.
    • c. Crosswind should not normally be initiated until past the departure end of the runway with interval. Comply with local SOP.
  32. 32) Identify generalities of the approach turn
    • Downwind
    • Transition
    • The 180
    • The 90
    • The Final or "groove"
  33. 33) Identify when to configure flaps and execute Before Landing Checklist
    Once established on Downwind
  34. 34) Recall pattern parameters for the downwind based on flap setting
    • a. Parallel to runway, ¾ to 1 WTD
    • b. Pattern attitude
    • c. Airspeed – 120 kias
    • d. Flaps & Power setting
    • i. NO – 31%
    • ii. TO – 42%
    • iii. LDG – 52%
    • e. Trim
  35. 35) Identify characteristics of the TRANSITION area
    • a. No sooner than the ABEAM position
    • b. Reduce power as required
    • i. NO – 14% (wait until starting 180° turn)
    • ii. TO – 15%
    • iii. LDG – 18%
    • iv. Trim
    • 1. Left Rudder – power reduction
    • 2. Nose up – deceleration
  36. 36) Recall pattern parameters for the 90°position based on flap setting
    • a. Passing through:
    • i. Airspeed
    • 1. NO – 120 KIAS
    • 2. TO – 115 KIAS
    • 3. LDG – 110 KIAS
    • ii. Altitude – 450’ AGL or ½ pattern altitude
    • b. After passing 90°
    • i. Airspeed – Decelerate to:
    • 1. NO – 110 KIAS
    • 2. TO – 105 KIAS
    • 3. LDG – 100 KIAS
    • ii. AOB – to intercept groove 1,200 – 1,500’ before threshold
    • iii. Rate of descent – approximately 800 fpm to intercept groove 100 – 150’AGL
  37. 37) Identify characteristics related to intercepting the final “groove”
    • a. Maintain pitch attitude while making a slight power reduction.
    • b. Aimpoint should be about ½ way up the windscreen
    • c. Maintain aimpoint (control stick) and glidepath (power)
    • d. Gradually decelerate using a very slight power reduction. Trim nose up slightly
    • e. Maintain runway extended centerline using wing low and top rudder (if crosswind present)
    • f. Scan windsock to determine wind direction and velocity
    • g. Visually check and verbally gear down IAW local SOP
    • h. Do not slow below final airspeed until commencing the landing transition
  38. 38) Identify the three phases of Landing
    • a. Landing Transition
    • i. Start power reduction and reduce descent rate
    • ii. Move aimpoint down runway progressively
    • b. Flare and Touchdown
    • i. Back stick pressure is slowly increased until the proper landing attitude is reached as power is reduced and airspeed decreases.
    • ii. Eyes remain at far end of runway
    • iii. PCL IDLE at touchdown
    • iv. Left rudder may be needed to maintain alignment
    • v. After touchdown, slightly relax backstick pressure to allow nose gear to settle to runway
    • c. Landing Roll
    • i. Nose gear on deck and belwo 80 KIAS, smoothly apply brakes and increase back stick pressure
    • ii. Maintain crosswind control throughout landing roll
    • iii. Confirm N1 reduction from 67 – 60% shortly after main gear touchdown (approx. 4 sec)
  39. 39) Identify procedures for a full stop landing
    • a. Smoothly move the PCL to Idle
    • b. Smoothly lower nose gear to runway once airspeed below 80 kts
    • c. Smoothly apply brakes and increase back-stick pressure.
    • i. Must verbalize “Airspeed below 80 kts” before braking
    • d. Use double the board method to determine approximate appropriate airspeed
    • i. 60-70 kts with 3000’ (3 boards) remaining
    • ii. 40-50 kts with 2000’ (2 boards) remaining
    • iii. 20-30 kts with 1000’ (1 board) remaning
    • iv. If speeds can not be met, execute a Touch-and-go based on TOLD
    • e. Turn off runway once aircraft is safely under control at taxi speed
    • f. Confirm N1 reduction from 67-60% shortly after main gear touchdown (4 sec)
    • g. Do not select NWS until aircraft at normal taxi speed
  40. 40) Identify procedures for touch-and-go landings
    • a. Move PCL to full forward without delay
    • i. Apply right rudder and rotate above 85 kts minimum
    • b. Execute normal takeoff.
    • i. Once positive rate of climb is confirmed, raise flaps from LDG to TO (if applicable).
    • ii. Once airspeed reaches 110 kts, retract flaps
    • iii. LEAVE GEAR DOWN
    • iv. Trim
    • c. As airspeed approaches 120 KIAS, reduce power to 60-70% and climb straight ahead
    • d. Once trimmed at 120 KIAS and with proper interval, make the crosswind radio call and begin the crosswind turn using approx. 35 AOB
    • e. Rollout on downwind with ¾ - 1 WTD from runway
    • f. 50’ prior to pattern altitude, transition to level flight by reducing power to ~31%
    • g. Once established on downwind, complete the Before landing checklist
  41. 41) Identify considerations for flap settings when faced with crosswinds
    • a. Consider using TO flaps if crosswinds greater than 10 kts
    • b. Consider using NO flaps is crosswind greater than 20 kts
  42. 42) Identify characteristics related to overshooting crosswinds
    • a. Cause aircraft to fly a track outside the normal final ground track
    • b. Ground speed in final turn will be higher than normal
    • c. To compensate for a higher required rate of descent:
    • i. Slightly lower than normal power setting needed
    • ii. Slightly more AOB needed
  43. 43) Identify characteristics related to undershooting crosswinds
    • a. Cause aircraft to fly a track inside the normal final ground track
    • b. Ground speed in final turn will be lower than normal
    • c. To compensate for a lower required rate of descent:
    • i. Slightly Higher than normal power setting needed
    • ii. Slightly less AOB needed
  44. 44) Determine final approach speed during windy conditions for a given flap setting
  45. 45) Identify applications used for the wing-low method during crosswind landings
    • a. Used for crosswind landings
    • b. After rollout on final transition to wing low method by applying:
    • i. Aileron into the wind as necessary to keep the aircraft from drifting left or right of the runway centerline
    • ii. Rudder deflection to align the longitudinal axis of the aircraft with the runway
    • iii. Additional power, as required, to counteract increased drag due to cross controls
    • iv. Maintain wing-low control inputs throughout flare and landing roll out or touch-and-go
  46. 46) Identify general controllability issues related to crosswind landings
    • a. Since airspeed decreases as the flare progresses, the flight controls gradually become less effective
    • i. As a result, the crosswind correction being held will become inadequate
    • b. Using wing low method, it is necessary to gradually increase deflection of aileron into the wind as the aircraft decelerates
    • c. As torque decreases, the nose will yaw right, requiring left rudder.
    • d. Gusty winds may lead to crabbing
    • i. Crabbing will result in a touchdown with longitudinal axis not aligned with runway
    • 1. Aircraft may tip or turn away from intended landing path (swerve)
  47. 47) Identify characteristics of a waveoff (go-around)
    • a. May be initiated by the pilot, or external source (RDO, wheels watch, waveoff lights, IP, tower, another aircraft, etc)
    • b. Waveoff is mandatory unless a greater emergency exists.
    • c. May be executed at anytime, but usually during the approach turn, in the straightaway, or during landing transition.
    • d. Sooner executed, safer it will be.
    • e. Waveoff should be executed if you have rolled into straightaway before the aircraft ahead has landed
  48. 48) Recall situations/conditions when a waveoff (go-around) is mandatory
    • a. When a safe landing can not be accomplished
    • i. Unsafe altitude
    • ii. Unsafe airspeed
    • iii. Overshooting approach
    • iv. Drifting or crabbing prior to touchdown
    • v. High transitions that will lead to bounced landing
    • vi. Stick shakers inside the 90 position of the normal landing pattern or inside base key of ELP
    • vii. Improper interval
  49. 49) Recognize causal factors of various landing errors
    • a. High flare
    • i. Flare begun or performed too early or with excessive pitch up
    • b. Late or Rapid Flare
    • i. Higher than expected descent rate or misjudged altitude
    • c. Porpoising
    • i. Incorrect (flat) landing attitude and airspeed.
    • ii. At touchdown, the nose gear contacts the runway before the main gear.
    • d. Floating
    • i. Late power reduction, excessive airspeed, or imporper flap setting
    • e. Ballooning
    • i. Rapid Flare
    • ii. Rapidly raising the nose to the landing attitude with excessive airspeed
    • f.
    • g. Bounce
    • i. Overly firm or hard touchdown causes aircraft to bounce off runway
    • ii. Contact with ground before landing attitude is attained. Landing with excessive rate of descent/energy
    • iii. Late recognition that aircraft is settling too fast, combined with excessive back-stick pressure
    • h. Landing in a drift or crab
    • i. Failure to apply sufficient wing-low crosswind corrections
    • i. Wing rising after touchdown
    • i. Lift differential combined with rolling moment. Caused with crosswind landing
  50. 50) Identify Outlying Filed (OLF) Departure requirements
    • a. Ensure you are number one upwind
    • b. Aircraft shall be safely airborne and past the departure end of the runway (or as defined by local SOP) and 120 KIAS minimum.
    • c. Check airspeed below 150 KIAS.
    • d. Raise landing gear hande and ensure flaps are up.
    • i. Report over ICS, “Gear up, flaps up at ___ knots.”
    • e. Transmit departure call (see local SOP)
    • f. Comply with SOP/Course rules for departure
Card Set
Contacts 1
Contacts 1