Clinical Methods

  1. Define what is meant by clinical psychology.
    Clinical psychology is about explaining mental health issues and focusing on the ways of treating them. Diagnosis, treatment and explanations tend to go together in clinical psychology.
  2. Why is diagnosis important?
    Diagnosis is important so that the right treatments can be suggested for an individual, so the reliability of diagnosis is also important. If two or more clinicians diagnosing the same person do not come up with the same diagnosis, the diagnosis is unreliable and different courses for the disorder might be suggested as well as different treatments.
  3. How do psychologists suggest treatments?
    Clinical psychologists are guided by NICE about what treatments are suitable for specific disorders, Such as CBT being evidence-based and recommended for mental disorders such as unipolar depression. Treatment choice clearly relies on diagnosis.
  4. Why are the explanations of a mental disorder important in clinical psychology?
    Because mental disorders can be explained by referring to biology and genes as well as referring to environmental triggers or both, which helps clinicians and patients to understand them. Diagnosis come with explanations, such as schizophrenia being related to neurotransmitter functioning.
  5. Give an example of how the three components of psychology link?
    If a disorder is explained by referring to neurotransmitter functioning, drug treatment might be seen as appropriate.
  6. Where are clinical psychologists likely to workjQuery110108704138126510199_1483361255518
    Hospitals, schools, health centres and prisons etc
  7. How are clinical psychologists paid?
    • How many hours do they work on average a week?
    • Most jobs are covered by the AFC pay scales. While training they're paid at band 6 and this moves to band 7. The standard hours are 37.5 a week.
  8. HCPC guidelines for clinical psychologists ensure what? What can be enforced for those who do not comply?
    That the public are protected and to ensure good practise. Sanctions.
  9. What are the HCPC registration stages of requirements? (2)
    Passed all elements of the course That they have a character and health reference
  10. How many standards of conduct, performance and ethics are there for clinicians under the HCPC?Outline a few?
    14 Respect confidentiality Keep recordsManage risk Be honest/trustworthy Communicate properly/effectively Provide information about your conduct and competence Keep high standards of personal conduct Act within your limits of skills, knowledge
  11. How many standards are there that professionals have to demonstrate in order to remain registered with the HCPC?
    • What are these?
    • 7 Character, health, standards of proficiency, standards of performance and ethics, standards for continuing professional development, standards of educating and training, and standards for prescribing.
  12. Outline what is meant by the standards of character.
    Clinicians need to provide credible character references from people who have known them for at least three years and they have to consider any criminal cautions and convictions given to the professional
  13. What is meant by the standards of health?
    People on the register must provide information every two years on their general health and on health issues that may affect their practice
  14. What is meant by the standards of proficiency?
    For each professional there are specific expectations in order for effective practice. These include professional autonomy and accountability and creating and delivering strategies to meet health and social care needs.
  15. What is meant by the standards of performance and ethics?
    There is a list of 14 guidelines that practitioners must follow in practice. These include maintaining confidentiality with service users and only acting within the limits of their own knowledge and keeping records for example. These have recently been reduced down to 10.
  16. How can clinicians retain the standards for continuing professional development?
    They can take part in and document regular training to develop their practice. This will include training events, evidence of how they've changed their practice and evaluation of the effectiveness of these changes.
  17. What are the standards of education and training?
    There is a minimum set of qualifications specified before people can register to practice. Registrants must have at least a Masters degree that is a BPS qualification and for some practices a doctorate degree will be required.
  18. Outline the standards for prescribing.
    The standards set out safe practice for prescribing medication by health and care professionals. It includes required knowledge and training to be a subscriber professional practice.
  19. What are longitudinal studies?
    Give some examples of longitudinal studies from year one.

    Studies that occur over time involving one person or one group on their own performance using the same variables.
  20. Watson and Rayner,Sherif, Cappafons,and Brendgen
  21. How come longitudinal studies be used to research mental health?
    Clinicians may be interested in monitoring the changes in symptoms in patients undergoing certain treatments. E.g A questionnaire to measure the severity over time
  22. When are cross-sectional studies used?What size of people are used in the sample?
    For when a researcher wants a quick snapshot of behaviour in a given population.

    A large group of people are use to get a good cross-section of the target population and then conclusions can be drawn from the data gathered
  23. Given example of a cross-sectional study.
    • What did this involve?
    • What did they find?

    Wijesundrea et al (2014)
  24. The focus was on drug therapy in schizophrenia as well is an explanation for schizophrenia. This was done by looking at tobacco use and antipsychotic medication taken by outpatients with schizophrenia in one hospital in Sri Lanka to see if there was a relationship between to two. The cross-section involved are using sampling every three people with the illness, self-report data, and a standardise scale as well as the Fagerstrom test to gather the data.
  25. They found that none of the females in the sample smoked cigarettes although smokeless tobacco was used by some,If you took clozapine you are more likely to stop smoking,Tobacco use was lowest in clozapine users.
  26. Give an example of a longitudinal study.
    • What did this involve?
    • What was found?

    Hankin (1998)
  27. This was a 10 year longitudinal study to look at gender differences in how depression emerges in young people. Participants included preadolescent-young adults (11-21) using a birth cohort of people born April 1 to March 31, 1972 to 1973. Structured interviews were conducted over 10 years five times.
  28. It was found that the largest gender difference was between 15 and 18 in the rate of depression and severityMore females were seen emerging with depression the males
  29. What are the strengths of a longitudinal study?
    What are the weaknesses?

    There are no individual differences that might affect the results.It is a good way of finding out how we develop mental health disorders over time.
  30. High dropout rates as people may move away or refuse to continueThis type of design can be intrusive and participants might find it hard to with draw
  31. What are the strengths of cross-sectional studies?
    What are the weaknesses?

    There are cheaper than longitudinal and there is less commitment to themThey are useful way of studying something that might take a long time to naturally occur, in a short space of time.
  32. They may be a co-hurt effect because different people are affected by age. They are not good at finding out the cause or progression of a mental disorder as they are not likely to include historical or future events
  33. What is a cross-cultural study?What are the two types of cross cultural studies? Explain these.
    Cross-cultural studies involve looking for similarities or differences and universal laws. In clinical we are looking for comparisons of experiences, symptoms and treatment for schizophrenia across different cultures.

    Etic- compares psychological phenomena across cultures to find out whether these are culture to specific or universal

    Emic- research studies including one culture to understand culture specific behaviours
  34. Give an example of a cross-cultural study.

    What did it involve?
    Mandy et al (2014)

    Gather data from Finland and compared this to the UK samples of the diagnosis of the autistic spectrum on the DSM5. They did this to see if this classification model could be use in places other than the USA and the UK for diagnosing autism. They found the diagnostic criteria was suitable for the UK and Finland, but that one subcategory didn't fit the Finnish sample. This data is then used to conclude how the diagnosis differs in two different cultures.
  35. What are the strengths the cross cultural studies?
    What are the weaknesses?

    Diagnosis or treatments can be generalisable to multiple cultures or falsifiable if cultural differences may be found.They can be reliable procedures is standardised.Clinicians can understand different cultures and then tailor their diagnostics or treatments to a group of people or an individual, especially if the individual is of a different race or culture to them.
  36. Constructs may have different meanings or definitions across cultures, reducing validity.Findings can be subjectively interpreted.
  37. What is meta-analysis?
    • When are the is used?
    • When are they using clinical psychology?
    • The studies can be gathered from a variety of...Why?

    Looking at secondary data from multiple Studies conducted by other researchers to make overall conclusions.
  38. These can be used when there are lots of cities available together last body of research or when findings of cities are inconsistent.
  39. To look at the effectiveness of treatments or therapies for a MHD.
  40. Places, cultures, times- to gather a large sample size
  41. Give an example of a meta-analysis study?
    • What was studied?
    • What type of studies were looked at?What type of studies were excluded?How did they avoid bias in previous studies?
    • What 2 conclusions were found?

    Stafford et al (2015)
  42. How effective and safe treatments of psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young adults.
  43. Those that looked at comparing drugs, psychological or combined treatments for young people with schizophrenia.
  44. Those with less than 10 participants and those that weren't English studies.
  45. They graded the studies based on quality using 27 trials from journals with 3067 participants.
  46. Adults responded better to psychotic treatments than children.
  47. Drugs that lead to weight gain had higher dropouts and family treatments affected the number of days of relapse.
  48. Explain the key issue with meta analysis.
    Meta analysis do not include unpublished studies, this might distort the findings and overall conclusions. As many studies that show negative or non-significant results are less likely to be published and therefore are missed from the data. This is known as publication bias.
  49. What are the strengths of meta analysis?
    What are the weaknesses?

    A large of sample size improves generalisability,They are less time consuming a more cost-effective,Patterns found may contribute to further research in the future and they apply to actual life,It is a way of finding trends about a relationship that might exist,Studies used from different cultures can help find a universal law.
  50. Publication bias,Differences in methods and procedures reduces reliability making steady is less comparable,Needs careful consideration in screening to ensure there is no bias involved,Poorly designed studies lead to poor conclusions.
  51. What is primary data?
    What is secondary data?

    Primary data is data that is collected by yourself,
  52. Secondary data is that which is collected from another source or sources.
  53. Given example of a study that uses primary and secondary data.
    • What was the aim?
    • Who were the participants and how many were there?
    • What was the primary data gathered?What was the secondary data gathered?
    • What did they do with the datasets found?
    • What were the conclusions?
    • Hach et al (2004)
    • To look at the frequency of mental disorders and the prescription of drugs for young women in Germany.18 to 35-year-olds in Germany and 1555.The primary data was gathered from interviews to diagnose the mental disorders using axis one of the DSM5, and they assess medication prescribed.The secondary data used each woman's diagnosis from her doctor and from her medical records.They then compared this data. It was concluded that they didn't match so the doctors prescriptions in Germany for mental health disorders needed to be checked as they weren't reliable.
  54. What are the strengths for primary data?
    • What are the weaknesses of primary data?
    • You have more control over your aim so they are more valid,Data is more credible but only if you are qualified,The research is modernised so is more applicable to real life now,It is more time consuming to collect than the secondary data and more expensive.The validity is questionable because you to check that you are measuring what you intend to via your procedures.
  55. What are the strengths of secondary data?
    What are the weaknesses?

    Cheaper, less time-consuming, more of it
  56. Less credible, could involve bias or be subjective, Records could be out of date or they could be construct changes,Conclusions might not apply to today setting reducing the generalisability,less valid
  57. What are the features of case studies?
    How can we test the reliability, validity and credibility of a case study?

    Case studies are idiographic because they describe and explain a small group or individual in detail but they do not establish a cause and effect conclusion. They use a series of research methods such as interviews and observations and gather a qualitative data.
  58. Through the triangulation of different sources
  59. Give an example of a case study in clinical?
    What did this involve?

    Lavarenne et al (2013)
  60. Running 45min support groups on a Thursday night that had 10 members for psychotic patients with fragile ego boundaries. They looked at how the group provided boundaries for people with a poor sense of self.
  61. What are the strengths of a case study?
    They gathered rich detailed data,Collects observational data, Interpreted by group leaders not researchers- less researcher bias

    Hard to generalise,Subjective interpretations,Triangulating them from different sources gains credibility
  62. What are the strengths of unstructured interviews?
    What are weaknesses?

    Build up a repore between ptp's and interviewers- less likely to lie,More open to interpretation,Creates openness, More valid
  63. Can be subjective,There is a higher chance of interview bias
  64. What are the strengths of structured interviewers?
    What are the weaknesses?

    A standardised list of questions makes data gathered more reliable, these are more objective and there is less interview bias, data likely to be reproduced again.
  65. No chance to clarify this reduces validity, may lack detail and cause frustration to the ptp
  66. What is inductive reasoning? What uses inductive reasoning?
    Observing something empirically and then using it to develop a theory from the data gathered Grounded theory
  67. Give an example of a study that uses grounded theory?
    What did this involve?

    Coldwell (2011)
  68. A paper being published about how people with psychosis positively contribute to their family.They used semi structured interviews to see what factors might help or hinder contributions by someone with the diagnosis to the family.This interview data was then analysed using grounded theory. Themes included providing, emotional support, practical support and personal enhancement and then these were explored using followed-up interviews, so that there was a better understanding of the categories emerging.
  69. What are the strengths of grounded theory? What are the weaknesses?
    Allows richness in detail to survive the analysis as they are developed into concepts,High validity as coding is done carefully,Specific guidance is there to derive a theory from qual data

    No theory- perhaps it is impossible to categorise data into conceptsGrounded theory uses a specific formula so the deep insight into individual meaning is lost in the method.
  70. What are the similarities between thematic analysis and grounded theory?
    Both ways of analysing qualitative dataBoth ways of making data more manageableBoth check the concepts/themesBoth time consuming and require someone who is highly trainedBoth are open to interpretation and can be subjectiveBoth have a procedure to use when conducting the analysisBoth could reduce validity by reducing the true meaning of a participants words to concepts/ themesBoth could lack generalisability as based on small/one data setBoth keep notes on themes or conceptsBoth have supporting evidenceBoth are highly valid if coding of themes or concepts is done carefully
  71. What are the differences between thematic analysis and grounded theory?
    Different number of stepsGrounded theory develops a theory from the dataThematic analysis develops themesThematic analysis can look at patterns in data in relation to specific research questionThematic analysis involves generating codes that can come from theory or from how the researcher understands their data, or previous researchAfter thematic analysis has been done, content analysis can be performed on the dataGrounded theory focuses away from the positivist tradition ( starting with hypothesis)Grounded theory uses specific terms to explain how it is done and is explicit in its guidance.
Card Set
Clinical Methods
A2 psychology clinical methodology