Which civilization claims to have to developed the first democracy?
Why did philosophers of Ancient Greece urge the use of reason and logic when making decisions?
To investigate the nature of the universe
Which civilization laid the foundation for the first republic in 508 BC?
Why did the creation of a written law by the Romans make such a big impact?
Gave them a foundation of protection
How is a direct democracy different from a representative democracy (republic)?
- Direct voted for laws
- Representative voted for people
Name the religion that follows the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth:
This is a set of religious and social principles, given to Moses, which outlined that way people should behave:
The 10 Commandments
This event sparked a split the Roman Catholic Church in the 16 century:
A period of "rebirth" of classic culture that lasted roughly from the 14th-16th century:
What invention allowed for a better spread of literacy throughout the world:
Describe the characteristics of the Renaissance of the 14th to 16th centuries:
- Explosion of arts
- printing press
What was a patron of the arts? How did they get people to make things for them?
A church leader who spent large amount of money for art
Best description of the word secular
The basic spirit of renaissance society
A technique known as perspective is most useful for the creation of what in paintings?
Shows three dimensions on a flat surface
The person who produces work "in the vernacular" is the one who...
Writes it in their native language
Describe the contributing factors in the weakening of the Catholic Church my 1500?
Luther's teachings and the 95 theses
Describe the three reasons why people were critical of the clergy (priests, monks, etc.)
- Monks were poorly educated
- They broke their priestly vows
- Got drunk on the street
What was the central focus of Luthers 95 theses?
Full reform of the church
What was one of the cornerstones of Luther's teachings?
- People did not need priest to interpret the Bible for them
- People could win salvation only by faith in God's gift of forgiveness
- All church teachings should be clearly based on the Bible
What was the most immediate response to Luther's writings by Pope Leo X?
He needed to be punished by his superiors
How did Elizabeth I handle the issues of religion is her country?
She established the state church
What was central to the message of Institutions of the Christian Religion by John Calvin
- Human nature
What does the term "predestination" refer to?
God already knows who will be saved.
Who took John Calvin's theology to Scotland?
What is the Scottish version of Calvinism called?
What was the relationship in France between the Huguenots (Protestants) and Catholics?
There was hatred between them
What about Charles I's actions resulted in the radical end to his life?
After agreeing to the petition he signed, he then ignored it
What was the purpose of the English Civil War (1642-1649)?
To choose whether Charles I would be king or not
Who became the new leader of England after the Civil War
The scientific revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world based on
Careful observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs
What were the causes of the scientific revolution?
- Renaissance encouraged curiosity
- Discovery of modern day knowledge
Describe the differences between the Heliocentric and geocentric theories.
- Geocentric: Earth was in the center
- Heliocentric: The sun was in the center
Why was the church frighten by the new discoveries by the scientist (such as Galileo)?
Because it went against the church beliefs
What is the Scientific method?
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
What were the major contributions of Bacon and Descartes?
If you had a better understanding of the world, scientist would generate practical knowledge that would improve people's living
What major impact did Andreas Vesalius have upon the understanding of the human body
He proved Galen's assumptions wrong
What was the impact of Edward Jenner?
He introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox
What was the Enlightenment?
A new intellectual movement that stressed reasonal thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
What is a social contract?
People had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler, in exchange they gained law and order
What new ideas about government differed from old ideas?
A government's power comes from the consent of the governed.
John Locke believed that all people were born free and equal with the three natural rights?
Name the five concepts that form the core beliefs of philosophies:
Voltaire's quote "I do not agree with the word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it" reflects the freedom of...
Baron de Montesquieu's most famous contribution to government was the idea of separation of powers. What does this mean?
Division of power among different branches
Mary Wollstonecraft was famous for advocating the rights of:
How did Hobbes vision of a social contract differ from Rousseau?
- Hobbes: ruler enforced
- Rousseau: individual freedom
Name three long-term effects of the Enlightenment:
- Belief in progress
- A more secular outlook
- Importance of the individual
Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin
What is the Industrialization
A process of developing machine production of goods
What are the factors of Production
Land, Labor, Capital, and entrepreneur
What is an entrepreneur?
A person who organizes, manages, and take the risk on the business
How did the agricultural revolution impact the amount of food grown?
Land owners to improve their farming methods and more inventions
What was the purpose of the crop rotation
To preserve soil fertility of the land
What was the benefit of land enclosure?
It was methods to boost up crop yields
Jethro Tull is best remembered for what invention(s) during the agricultural revolution?
What was the first industry to modernize by 1800 in Europe?
Britain’s textile industry
What where the 4 major effects of the locomotive
- 1: gave manufacturers a cheaper way to transport materials
- 2: created thousands of new jobs
- 3: boasted England's agricultural and fishing industry
- 4: Make travel easier
Why did the majority of people move to cities?
the growth of the factory system
What term means the building of cities and people moving to them:
Where had most people lived to prior to the Industrial Revolution?
What major economic class emerged during the Industrial Revolution?
Describe the working conditions in factories:
- Lots of hours of work
- Machines on all the time, never changed.
Describe the living conditions for the poor:
- Lack of education and police protection
- Lots of sickness
What was the purpose of the Factory Act in 1819 in Britain?
To restrict working age and hours
What were some causes of the working and living conditions experienced by the poor?
More factories were built and middle class emerged
Name four long-term effects of industrialization:
- Higher wages
- shorter hours
- better working and living conditions
- housing and diet improved
Name four short term affects of industrialization:
- More jobs
- more inventions
- increase the production of goods
- raise the standard living
After Great Britain, which nation was next to industrialize?
What was the name of the British mill worker Who emigrated to the United States and brought the design for the spinning machine:
Why did thousands of young woman move from rural homes to work in the mills of factory towns?
To earn higher wages and gain more freedom
Why did the US experience a technological boom experience in the last third of the 1800s? (Give at least 3 causes)
- Natural resources
- New inventions
- High population to buy more products made
Why did cities like Chicago and Minneapolis especially expand rapidly during the late 1800s?
Because they were near the railroads
How did entrepreneurs raise funds to invest in their business?
By selling shares in the stock company
What reasons are given for Belgium becoming the second European country to industrialize?
- Natural resources
- Waterways for transportation
- Designs for spinning machines
The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars affected industrialization on the European continent in all the following ways: (at least 3):
- Interrupted trade
- halted communication
- Caused inflation
How did Germany’s industrialization impact it economically and politically by the end of the 1800s?
Germany had become military giants and economically successful
What was the inevitable consequence for nations that did not industrialize during this era?
Became financially weak and unable to protect themselves.
What is laissez-faire economics?
Economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference
What type of economy focuses on the law of supply & demand, profit incentive and individualism:
Why did laissez-faire thinkers like Smith, Malthus and Ricardo oppose government efforts to help poor workers?
Because they thought creating minimum-wage laws and better working conditions would upset the free market system is lower profits undermine wealth in society
Why did social theorist begin to push the government intervention to the economy?
That wealth people or the government take action to improve people's lives
What does Jeremy Bentham's "utilitarianism" mean?
People should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness
Name the economic system:
The intervention of the government into society in order to read distribute the wealth so that more people are provided for
Name the economic system:
The absence of private property and presents of government planning of the economy
Who was the author of the Communist Manifesto and called the "Father of Communism"?
How did reformers succeed in changing the lives of workers in the factories of Great Britain and the United States?
Name three changes made by British and United States' reformers in the 19 century?
- Improving workplace
- Right to vote for working class men
- Abolition of slavery and promote for women's rights
Europeans controlled a small portion of Africa in the 1800s for all of the following reasons:
They wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production.
Imperialism is the term that refers to:
Seizure of a country by stronger country
What are three major motives for imperializing other nations through the 19th century?
- More trading post
- spread of religion
- access to resources
How did "Social Darwinism" help justify the imperialization of Africa and other civilizations?
The Europeans technological superiority. Europeans believe that they have the right and the duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries
What did Africa look like politically before Europeans took over?
African people were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups. Most continue to follow traditional believes, while others converted to Islam or Christianity
Name at least three reasons that the colonization of Africa was possible:
- Africans huge variety of languages and cultures discouraged unity among them.
- Wars fought between ethnic groups over land, water, and trade rights also prevented a unified stand.
- Europeans learn to play rival groups against each other
What was the Berlin conference of 1884-85?
To lay down rules for the division of Africa
Why did the Boers and the British fights over southern Africa?
Clashed over British policy regarding land and slaves.
What eventually allowed Europeans to lead expeditions into the interior of Africa?
Why were so many European countries desperate for control of a piece of Africa by the 1880s
Diamonds and gold were discovered in southern Africa.