ENCS 356 final

  1. what's in a plant cell?
    • ratio of cell contents to cell structure
    • cell contents: good stuff
    • cell structure: hard to digest
  2. leaves of nearly all forages have higher _________ and lower ________ than stems
    • higher crude protein, phosphorous, cell soluble levels
    • lower fiber and lignin
  3. stems of woody plants are ____ in quality because of _________
    • low
    • high levels of lignification
  4. fruits and flowers from _______ generally have higher levels of _________ than leaves
    • forbs and shrubs
    • cell solubles and protein
  5. what nutritional compounds do animals need?
    • carbohydrates
    • fats
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • vitamins
  6. energy allocation in animals
    • 1. maintenance
    • 2. reproduction
    • 3. growth
    • 4. storage
  7. types of grazers
    • grazers
    • browsers
    • intermediate feeders
  8. grazers
    • consume primarily grasses, bulk feeders
    • ex. cattle, elk, bison, bighorn sheep, horses
  9. browsers
    • mostly forbs and shrubs throughout the year, concentrate selectors 
    • ex. moose, pronghorn, mule deer, domestic goats
  10. intermediate feeders
    • can adjust their diet to whatever is available
    • ex. domestic sheep, caribou
  11. types of digestive systems
    • ruminants (microorganisms)
    • monogastric with enlarged cecum (hindgut fermenters)
    • monograstric without enlarged cecum
  12. pro and con of ruminants?
    • pro: excellent survival under moderate quality forage
    • disadvantage: intake limited by passage rate (ie. can't cope with extended exposure to low quality forage)
  13. pro and con of monogastric with enlarged cecum?
    • pro: intake NOT limited by forage quality, can survive under low quality forage conditions
    • con: problems with limited forage quantity, esp. with inefficient digestion (need to eat lots)
  14. factors of forage selection by large ungulates
    • 1. body size
    • 2. digestive system
    • 3. mouth size and shape
    • 4. rumen reticular volume
  15. determinants of vegetational nutritional quality
    • phenology
    • environmental conditions
    • plant growth form/species 
    • plant species composition
    • management
  16. animal strategies to increase forage quality
    • selection of higher quality plants while feeding
    • selection of actively growing plant communities
  17. plans to avoid animals eating poisonous plants?
    • identify and avoid high risk areas
    • avoid moving livestock when hungry
    • provide efficient salt (avoid cravings)
    • ensure adequate water and sufficient feed to facilitate passage rates and breakdown of toxins 
    • control poisonous plants (mowing, targeted herbicides)
    • avoid overgrazing and forcing animals to eat plants they wouldn't normally pick
  18. ecological constraints on animal production
    • <1% of solar energy converted to primary production
    • <20% of primary production is consumed by herbivores
    • conversion efficiency is <10%
  19. what 3 things does animal production depend on?
    • energy capture
    • harvest
    • conversion efficiencies
  20. measurements of animal production
    • gains per animal 
    • gains per unit land area
  21. factors determining animal impact
    • animal type
    • stocking density
    • stocking rate (timing, duration, frequency)
    • location of grazing (animal distribution)
  22. forage available
    browse and palatable herbage
  23. forage demand
    daily amount of forage required to meet nutrition requirements
  24. grazing pressure
    forage demand/forage available
  25. Safe use factor (SUF)
    max level of plant defoliation that facilitates continued vigorous growth
  26. actual SUFs depend on
    • plant species available (and grazing tolerance)
    • plant phenology
    • plant vigor
    • susceptibility of the site to erosion
    • objectives of the rangeland manager
  27. carrying capacity
    max number of animals that can be supported on a particular rangeland
  28. grazing (safe) cc (AUM) [what]
    number of animals that can be sustainably supported given current management
  29. absolute CC (AUM)
    • max number of animals that an area can support (assumes all forage is consumed, FA=FD)
    • no SUF
    • no buffer to deal with variability
  30. supplemental feeding is beneficial if:
    forage digestibility (eg. quality) limits intake
  31. compensatory growth
    animals in poorer condition consume greater quantities of moderate to high quality forage
  32. common-use grazing
    dietary difference allow for greater production when multiple sp. are present
  33. factors of disturbance
    • intensity
    • frequency
    • duration
    • extent (spatial)
  34. disturbance alters:
    • plant growth
    • biomass
    • plant community composition
    • plant-plant interactions
    • biophysical properties (ex. litter)
  35. grazing systems
    a detailed protocol specifying the type, number, timing, and physical distribution of grazing animals
  36. objectives of grazing system
    • defer or rest key species
    • obtain more uniform use of forage
    • increase livestock productivity
    • provide opportunity for sacrifice areas to recover
    • increase wildlife productivity
  37. grazing season
    total period of time during which grazing could sustainably take place given the inherent conditions of the region
  38. grazing period
    actual time period during which grazing takes place within a particular area
  39. rest period
    timer interval bw successive grazing periods
  40. rest
    nonuse for a full year
  41. deferment
    delay of grazing in a pasture until seed maturity for key forage species
  42. rotation
    movement of cattle from one pasture to another on a schedule
  43. types of no pasture grazing systems
    • zero grazing
    • transhumance
  44. types of multiple pasture grazin systems
    • seasonal suitability
    • defered rotation
    • rest rotation
  45. types of complex multiple pasture grazing systems
    • HILF
    • LIHF
    • SD
    • time control
  46. considerations for grazing systems
    • topography
    • climate (variable ppt)
    • wildlife
    • trees
    • water distribution
    • vegetation type (ex. grazing resistant)
  47. zero grazing
    livestock not exposed to landscape, food brought to them
  48. transhumance grazing
    • animals migrate bw adjacent land areas on concert with major phenological changes
    • reflects grazing history wild animals had with landscape
  49. single pasture (continuous) grazing (pro and con)
    • animals confined to a single pasture at low densities for the entire growing season
    • pro: selectivity, max per animal weight gain, least amt fencing
    • con: forage use is uneven, retrogression in over-used patches
  50. seasonal suitability
    livestock graze each vegetation type when it is most suitable
  51. deferred rotation
    • animals not allowed on a portion of the range until after growth is well advanced 
    • allows vegetation to reach maximum growth
  52. rest rotation (pro and con)
    • similar to DRG, except at least one pasture remains ungrazed all year to allow plants to produce seed
    • pro: helps with livestock distribution, wildlife
    • con: pastures that aren't getting rested get heavier use, reduces livestock performance bc less selectivity
  53. three herd/four pasture system
    • multiple herds, moderate/conservative stocking
    • effective where there is year-round potential for regrowth
  54. "best" pasture system
    • designed for localized ppt events
    • ex. desert systems where forbs are responsive to rainfall
  55. high intensity low frequency
    • livestock are moved after utilization reaches high levels (~70%)
    • long rest periods
    • high utilization grazing
  56. low intensity high frequency
    • livestock are moved frequently after light utilization
    • shorter rest periods
    • high performance grazing
  57. short duration (SD)
    • livestock are kept at higher densities and moved frequently, generally after 1 or 2 days, following the rule of "maximum of 1 bite per plant per grazing period"
    • animals move based on plant growth/development
  58. 6 steps for planning for interactions with livestock and wildlife
    • 1. establish objectives and priorities in multi-species management
    • 2. determine essential requirements for all
    • 3. determine habitat potential to meet multiple sp. objectives
    • 4. assess species interactions
    • 5. monitor impacts of livestock management on associated wildlife
    • 6. modify management (adaptive management)
  59. common use grazing systems
    grazing of 2 or more species on the same range to obtain more efficient use of forage
  60. direct effects of livestock on wildlife
    • modification of available forage
    • alteration of vegetation structure
    • disease transmission
    • trampling (exposure time x stocking rate)
  61. indirect effects of livestock on wildlife
    • alteration of plant community species over time
    • wildlife injury and altered movement due to infrastructure
    • water development may increase in the area of suitable habitat
    • range improvements like burning, spraying, etc
  62. the 4 rangeland wildlife case studies
    • 1. wild ungulates and facultative grazing
    • 2. horses and wild burros
    • 3. waterfowl
    • 4. upland avifauna
  63. facultative grazing
    • strategic grazing by livestock of a given area in mid to late summer to stimulate regrowth during fall
    • relies on having adequate moisture for regrowth
  64. 4 objectives of facultative grazing
    • 1. provide high quality winter forage
    • 2. remove mature vegetation (graze later in season)
    • 3. provide current year's growth (rest?)
    • 4. maintain vigour (all treatments get deferment or rest)
  65. when does ducks unlimited recommend that you defer grazing of uplands until after?
    • July 15
    • gives birds time to nest 
    • minimize trampling damage
  66. mechanisms for enhancing wildlife habitat/management
    • public land (regulation and enforcement)
    • private land (paid hunting-fishing, nature camps/retreats, etc)
  67. benefits of managing for native ungulates
    • "common use" grazing increases efficiency of animal production relative to forage available
    • native ungulates better adapted to endemic diseases, landscapes, climatic conditions
    • lower input costs (vet bills, breeding,etc)
    • simultaneous benefits to other wildlife that use the same habitat/resources
  68. predator management
    • controversial today, used to be common practice
    • best kind of management is "proactive prevention" - minimize contact with predators (guard dogs, donkeys, know when are where is risky, etc)
  69. insect management
    • can be hard to control, can sometimes be predicted
    • regulated by many factors (ex. climate), most importantly can be excasperated by overgrazing
  70. habitat selection broad factors
    • evolutionary factors (increase survival value on habitat selection)
    • behavior factors (provide the mechanism by which areas are selected)
  71. most mammalian species are ________
    • generalists
    • some specialists tho (pandas, koalas)
  72. vegetation influences on selection
    • biomass regulates foraging (and therefore intake)
    • composition and quality of forage
    • phenology
  73. optimal foraging theory
    notion that animals "know" what nutrients they ned and actively "select" forage containing these nutrients (~innate ability)
  74. learning by consequence foraging theory
    • notion that animals "learn" what nutrients are beneficial by 
    • 1. mimicking their parents
    • 2. post-ingestive feedback
  75. animal-regulated influence on selection
    • location and availability of water
    • topography (steep slopes - avoidance or preference)
    • safety (ie. risk of predation)
    • time of year (summer vs winter)
    • location and availability of shade (forest and riparian)
    • insects
    • wind (better in summer, bad in winter)
    • other behavioral considerations (breeding, calving, etc)
  76. thermal neutral zone
    range of ambient temperatures within which an animal does not need to expend additional energy cooling or heating itself
  77. both cattle and wildlife...
    • strategically use topography (ex. south-facing slopes) and vegetation for thermal and safety cover
    • develop a winter coat and fat reserves
  78. traits more characteristic just to wildlife
    • seasonally migrate with forage availability
    • estivation (lowering of metabolic rate)
    • ungulates experience strong seasonal patterns of weight gain and loss
  79. primary range
    • spatially preferred areas of the landscape 
    • ex. valley bottoms, riparian areas
    • the first choice to livestock
  80. secondary range
    • areas used predominantly after primary areas are depleted
    • ex. slopes, forests
    • second-choice
  81. non-use range
    areas ungrazed by livestock
  82. unintentional non-use range
    • areas inherently avoided by animals
    • excessive slopes
    • heavy timber
    • lack of water
  83. intentional non-use range
    • avoided through management
    • fenced out riparian areas, areas with poisionous plants, critical wildlife habitat
  84. management factors
    • adjustments made to available forage when quantifying grazing capacity to account for uneven use 
    • not the same as SUFS!
    • MFs stress the difference between communities across the landscape
  85. feeding station
    array of plants available when an animal lowers its head to feed
  86. plant and plant part selection factors
    • diet selection
    • feeding behavior
  87. palatability
    • characteristics inherent to the individual plant that elicit a selective response by a herbivore
    • regulated closely by plant "avoidance" mechanisms
  88. preference
    • proportional choice made by a herbivore in selecting one plant species for consumption over others
    • varies by animal species, plant availability, time of year
  89. factors that go into predator-prey relationships
    • density of prey
    • search efficiency
    • total time spent
    • total search time for all prey
    • handling time per prey item
    • number prey eaten during period of search time
  90. foraging time
    f(x): travel to patch + searching + feeding
  91. actual intake
    = bite rate x bite size
  92. feeding behavior with good forage conditions (quality and quantity) ?
    • travel time is short
    • search time is high (more choosey)
    • actual foraging time is short (pick the best and fill up quickly)
  93. bulk feeders feeding behavior
    low bite rates, large bites
  94. concentrate selector feeding behavior
    high bite rates, small but quality bites
  95. feeding behaviour with reduced forage quantity
    • travel time decreases
    • relative proportion of time spent actually foraging within a feeding station increases
    • animal get less choosey, more opportunistic
    • dont have luxury of going to higher quality FS
  96. reduced forage quality
    • total foraging time may decrease due to slower passage rates (low digestibility)
    • actual nutrient intake may decrease
  97. strategies to improve animal distribution
    • water developments
    • disperse salt and mineral supplements
    • trail development for access (to get animals into areas like forests)
    • riding (forced animal movement)
    • specialized grazing systems
  98. excreta can alter
    • soil chemistry
    • GHG emissions
    • local productivity
  99. indirect effects of grazing
    • microclimate modification (ex. litter loss -> xerification)
    • soil changes (ex. soil compaction)
    • competition bw plant species
    • magnification of non-uniform competition
  100. defoliation favors either...
    the less defoliated plant AND/OR the more grazing tolerant plant
  101. intermediate disturbance hypothesis
    • notion that maximum species diversity is associated with intermediate levels of disturbance (ex. grazing)
    • competitive species dominate under low levels of disturbance
    • only ruderal species can dominate under high levels of disturbance
  102. plant competition
    the tendency of neighbouring plants to utilize the same quantum of light, ion of mineral nutrient, molecule of water or volume of space
  103. general fire effects
    • retrogression changes to production
    • strategy of plant species to cope with fire (ex. colonizers, tolerators)
    • nature of fire influences retrogression
  104. nature of fire that influences retrogression?
    • frequency
    • intensity
    • timing/season
  105. results of fire suppression?
    contributes to increased woody vegetation
  106. catena
    repetitive variation in vegetation, soil, etc with changes in slope, aspect, relief
  107. recharge areas
    source points for the entry of water, nutrients, salts, etc to the soil profile
  108. discharge areas
    points of discharge for water, nutrients, salts, etc (local, regional)
  109. factors affected by the alteration of effective growing conditions
    • salt levels
    • nutrient levels
    • effective moisture regimes
    • length of growing season
    • textural differences
Card Set
ENCS 356 final
after midterm flashcards