1118 Final

  1. Cardiac output
    HR X stroke volume
  2. How do we obtain a stroke volume reading?
    By a swan ganz line
  3. How does heart rate affect cardiac output?
    If HR ↑ too much like > 150 CO will drop due to decreased filling time.  If HR is too low it will decrease co
  4. What is the normal range for CO?
  5. What is important to know about pre-load?
    Think fluid, need to decrease fluid using Lasix, monitor potassium
  6. What to know about after-load
    Think BP, decrease BP with meds
  7. What meds decrease BP?
    Think ABCD, ACE rils/ARB artins, Beta blockers lol, Calcium channel blockers amlodipine diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine Diuretics lasix
  8. Wheezes
    r/t bronchial constriction, asthma
  9. crackles
    fluid pulmonary edema
  10. stridor
    airway obstruction, anaphylaxis
  11. contractility
    • SA node 60-100 bpm
    • AV node 40-60 
    • Perkinje 20-40 fibers
  12. cardiac enzyme to measure for MI
    troponin, comb
  13. Rhythm problem
    check thyroid
  14. Kidney function test
    creatinine and bun
  15. Ischemia
    ST elevation problems
  16. Thallium and radio nuclear  scan
    show perfusion of the heart
  17. TEE and TTE
    show the structure of the heart
  18. If a patient can't do a physical stress test what meds are used for a pharmacologic stress test?
    Dipyridamole, and adenosine
  19. increased vasovago tone, bearing down cause what to the HR?
    Decreased HR
  20. What meds are used for bradycardia?
    ATROPENE AND epinephrine
  21. Normal appt? an therapeutic levels?
    50 -70 therapeutic 2-2.5 x so anything over 100 might be too hight appt and risk for bleeding
  22. PAC Premature atrial contractions
    pt trying to go into Afib.  premature beat, sometimes don't see a p wave, it gets buried into wave.
  23. Meds for a fib
    IV amiodarone bolus then drip, anticoagulation, cardizem/diltizem, sotalol, propafaone, IV digoxin (narrow therapeutic range),
Card Set
1118 Final