Biol 120

  1. Robert Hooke
    • Law of Elasticity
    • Microscopist
    • Discovered cell (cork)
  2. Leeuwenhoek
    • Discovered microscope
    • Referred to cells as "animacules"
  3. Ferdinand Cohn
    • Founding father of bacteriology
    • Classified bacteria into 4 categories based on shape
    • 1st to realize cyanobacteria photosynthesized
    • Noted spore formation of bacillus
    • Sterile culture techniques
  4. Louis Pasteur
    • Pasteur's Swan Neck Flask (spontaneous generation)
    • Pasteurization
    • Showed microbes cause disease
    • Attenuated vaccines using chicken cholera
  5. Robert Koch
    • Founding father of bacteriology
    • Related microbes to specific diseases
    • Used agar for controlled growth of bacteria in lab
  6. Robert Koch's Postulate
    • Found disease in infected organism
    • Verified it did not exist in uninfected organism
    • Grew pure strains in agar
    • Innoculated organism
    • Extracted microbes from infected organism
  7. Beijernick
    • Father of environmental microbiology
    • Enrichment culture (based on growth success)
    • Father of virology (viruses were not filtered)
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Bacteria can survive without oxygen
  8. Winogradsky
    • Nitrogen cycle and sulfer cycle
    • Chemolithotrophy
    • Oxidation of inorganic compounds for energy
    • Winogradsky Column
  9. Microbe Size & SA/V
    • 0.2 um - 750 um
    • High surface area/volume
  10. Growth Rate
    • Proportional to nutrient uptake
    • 10-1,000 times faster than our cells
  11. Chemolithotrophs
    Use inorganic molecules to affix CO2
  12. Chemoorganotrophs
    Use organic molecules to affix CO2
  13. Aerobic
    Use oxygen
  14. Anaerobic
    Do not use oxygen
  15. Ecological Niches
    Abiotic vs Biotic
    • Abiotic- ex. dirt
    • Biotic- ex. human body
  16. Bacteria
    Storage form of sugar
    • Usually glycogen
    • Sometimes cellulose
    • Never starch
  17. Bacteria
    Amino Acids
    • More than 20 amino acids
    • Have amino acids not found in humans
  18. Microscope Resolution
    • See objects as two separate points
    • about 0.2 um for human eye
  19. Bright Field Microscopy
    • Mainly for eukaryotes
    • Blue light works better
  20. Direct Simple Stains
    Usually positive charge binds to nucleic acids and polysacharides of cell wall
  21. Fixation
    Heat is used to denature proteins so that cells adhere to microscope slide
  22. Gram Stain
    • First thing used to test unknown
    • Red=gram positive
    • Pink=gram negative
  23. Antibody Stain
    Distinguish one bacteria from another based on antibodies
  24. Phase Contrast Microscopy
    • Exploits difference in refactive index
    • Wet mount specimens
    • Not too useful for bacteria since cells are similar
  25. Dark Field Microscopy
    • Light comes from side
    • Good for seeing motile organism or thin microbes
    • Resolution isn't too great
  26. Fluorescence Microscopy
    • Absorbs light of one wavelength (excitation) and emits light of another wavelength (emission)
    • Good for chlorophyll, DNA, proteins
  27. Differential Interface Confocal Microscopy
    3D Image
    scans with thin probe and reads image
  28. Atomic Force Microscopy
    No physical contact with specimen
  29. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy
    Capable of 0.1 nm resolution
  30. Transmission Electron Microscopy
    • Use diamond knife to cut specimen
    • See internal structures
    • Requires lead/uranium
  31. Scanning Electron Microscope
    • Coat with gold
    • Can look at intact cells
Card Set
Biol 120