Anthro Final

  1. Additional meanings that are associated with a word or phrase
  2. Express important truths
    Key symbols
  3. A narrative, often involving supernatural beings, actions, or events, that express popular ideas about nature and society.
  4. The principle that an individual's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture
    Cultural relativism
  5. Judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture
  6. A defensive psychological response to prolonged interaction with another culture
    culture shock
  7. Begin to think that our own culture is inferior to that of our hosts
    Inverted ethnocentrism
  8. Picking up the prejudices of our hosts
    secondary ethnocentrism
  9. Disorientation and dissociation the traveler experiences upon returning to the social and cultural scene that s/he considers "home"
    reverse culture shock
  10. Working for or against change
    Public anthropology
  11. The invention of qualitatively new forms
  12. Culture change occurs with
    Innovation & Borrowing
  13. Uses knowledge to make social interaction more predictable among people who operate with different culture
    Adjustment anthropology
  14. Anything that we can perceive with our senses that stands for something else
  15. A system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.
  16. The behavior that produces vocal sounds.
  17. Consists of the categories and rules for forming vocal symbols
  18. The minimal categories of speech sounds that serve to keep utterances apart
  19. Refers to the categories and rules for combining vocal symbols
  20. The categories in any language that carry meaning
  21. Refers to the categories and rules for relating vocal symbols tot her referents
  22. Combine meaningful utterances with social situations into appropriate messages.
    Sociolinguistic rules
  23. The adoption of something new from another group
    Borrowing / Diffusion
  24. Uses anthropological knowledge for planned change by those who are external to the local culture
    Administrative anthro
  25. Uses anthropological knowledge for planned change by
    the local cultural group.
    Action anthro
  26. Uses anthropological knowledge by the anthropologist
    to increase the power of self-determination of a particular cultural group
    Advocate anthro
  27. The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate problems of human existence.
  28. Emerge from universal features of
    human life and include life’s meaning, death, evil, and transcendent values
    Ultimate problems
  29. The term used in Polynesian and Melanesian belief, it represents a kind of freefloating
    force lodged in many things and places
  30. Refers to the strategies people use to control supernatural
  31. Uses magic to cause harm. For example, some Bhil bhopas,  who regularly
    use magic for positive purposes, may also be hired to work revenge
  32. Is closely related to sorcery because both use supernatural force to
    cause evil
  33. A way to communicate with the supernatural. It usually
    requires material objects or animals to provide answers to human-directed questions
  34. Religious specialists who directly control supernatural power. They may have personal relationships with spiritual beings or know powerful secret medicines and sayings. They are usually associated with curing.
  35. Refers to a system of concepts and often unstated assumptions about
  36. Deliberate, organized,
    conscious efforts by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture
    revitalization movements
  37. American anthropologist; fieldwork in Indonesia & Morocco; 
    Known primarily for work on religion, theoretical problems of epistemology(philosophical questions about knowledge, knowing)
    Clifford Geertz
  38. Polish- born anthropologist; 
    Known for his extensive fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands, off New Guinea, in the 1910s and 1920s
    Bronislaw Malinowski
  39. sounds
  40. grammar
  41. meaning, words
  42. the system of sounds that make a difference within a particular language
  43. a universal set of descriptions of acoustic properties available for use in any language
  44. Smallest linguistically significant unit of sound

    bundles of distinctive features (what allows is to distinguish two “sounds”)
  45. Examples: voicing, aspiration, point of contact/release, stop vs. fricative, etc. (consonants); nasal, lax vs. tense (short vs. long), high/mid/low, etc. (vowels)
  46. curers who are possessed by or manipulate spirits. The term comes from saman, or “knowledgeable person,” of the Tungusic languages of Siberia and Manchuria
  47. Asks, How does it help a culture meet the basic physiological and psychological human needs of its individual members (food, shelter/safety, reproduction, relaxation, growth, movement, bodily comfort)? (Bronislaw Malinowski) 

    Views societies as organic wholes and asks, What is the functionof institutions and patterns of belief and custom within the whole? (A.R. Radcliffe-Brown)
  48. The predominant approach of British anthropology and much of American anthropology from the 1930s to the 1960s
    •Still a useful approach combined with others, but has limitations on its own
    •Often criticized for assuming coherence and stability, i.e., the fallacyof thinking that societies are systems of adaptive parts
  49. Stresses cultural meaning and symbols, “emic” connections, NOT function
    •School of linguistics associated with Ferdinand de Saussure, Roman Jakobson, Emile Benveniste
    •School of anthropology associated especially with Claude Lévi-Strauss
  50. both men and women exhibit and value peaceful mild, nurturing personalities and take equal roles in child rearing
  51. both men and women exhibit and value relatively aggressive, fierce personalities
  52. men are mild-mannered, emotional dependent, vain, detached from daily subsistence activities; women are aggressive and powerful, practical, sexually dominant
  53. male symptoms or behaviorsduring wife’s pregnancy
    the structure of one's native language strongly influences or fully determines one’s world view
    Linguistic determinism
    differences in languages will be paralleled in habits or tendencies of thought
    linguistic relativity
Card Set
Anthro Final