1. The APA's 1945 constitution listed three areas that the organization existed to advance. What were those three areas?
    • Curing poverty
    • Ending racism
    • Bringing peace to the world
  2. How did Helen Thompson's research methods on sex differences differ from the previous "research?"
    She actually conducted experiments; before it was bias and conjecture
  3. What was the general finding in Thompson's research about similarities and differences in performance?
    • Men and women were mostly similar
    • Men did better on motor tasks and showed more creativity
    • Women did better on some coordination tasks, showed more acute senses, more word associations, and better memory performance
  4. What hypothesis did Leta Hollingworth test in her dissertation? What did she conclude about that hypothesis?
    That women were "cognitively and emotionally impaired" during their menstrual cycle; found no difference on cognitive tests for women during their menstrual cycle versus when they were not menstruating.
  5. What does the variability hypothesis claim?
    • That there was more men among men than women
    • More men at high and low end
    • Highest achievements mostly belonged to men
    • More men were "feeble-minded"
  6. What did Hollingworth conclude about the literature supporting the variability hypothesis?
    • Men were admitted to institutions at higher rates
    • Most people in admitted after 13 were female
  7. What is the goal of social action research?
    • Change situations
    • Make groups better
    • Make societies better
  8. In Lewin's view, what determines behavior?
    • The situation
    • Interaction between person and environment
  9. How did Guthrie define scientific racism?
    Instances in which science was used to introduce or maintain beliefs about superiority of a particular race.
  10. By the 1940's, what did psychologists such as Klineberg believe about the explanation for racial differences in intelligence?
    • When there were differences, it was due to the following:
    • prejudice
    • discrimination
    • differing environmental opportunities
    • cultural bias in tests
  11. What did Kenneth and Mamie Clark find in their research on self-esteem in black children?
    • Children in segregate schools had lower self esteem
    • Inferior status was "practically an act of God"
  12. What was significant about the use of the Clarks' research in the Brown vs. Board of Education decision?
    Evidence from their research helped to overturn "separate but equal".
  13. For what phrase is Gestalt Psychology best known?
    The whole is different from the sum of its parts,
  14. What does it mean that Gestalt Psychology is holistic?
    • Opposes a reductionistic analysis of elemental parts
    • There are perceptual qualities in the whole experience that cannot be found in study of the parts
  15. What does it mean that Gestalt Psychology is phenomenological?
    Studies experience as it occurs, in meaningful units
  16. What is the phi phenomenon?
    • There were two black lines against a background, one horizontal, one vertical
    • Lengthening or shortening the time participants viewed them determine whether they saw it as a right angle or two separate lines
  17. How did the Gestaltists disagree with Behaviorists about experience?
    Behaviorists believed it wasn't directly knowable, whereas Gestaltists believed that it was the only thing worth knowing, and could be studied exactly as it occured
  18. In Gestalt Psychology, what is the function of the innate organizing tendencies?
    • Help structure the perceptual world into meaningful wholes
    • Principles of grouping
    • Closure
    • In-ground perception
  19. What is the Zeigarnik Effect?
    There is a greater memory for incomplete tasks than complete tasks. For instance, students are more likely to remember question they left blank.
  20. What did Köhler conclude about successful problem solving from his studies with chimpanzees?
    • Successful problem solving meant seeing the problem as a whole, by linking all of the elements together into a unified whole
    • Those who couldn't lacked insight
  21. In Köhler’s research on chickens, what did he conclude about how they had learned the problem?
    • They learned the problem as a relationship or whole
    • They learned to peck on the darker of the two cards
  22. What was Bartlett's approach to studying memory?
    Tell a story to participants, and have them repeat it to others.
  23. What is a schema?
    Cognitive framework that organizes past experiences related to particular concepts
  24. Psychologists often use flow chart models of cognitive processes. On what metaphor are these models based?
  25. How did Brown and McNeill produce the tip of the tongue phenomenon in the laboratory?
    • Read low-frequency words to subjects
    • When subjects tried to retrieve the word, they filled out a questionnaire about target word
    • Ex: # of syllables it may have, words similar in sound and meaning
  26. What did Chomsky argue about a behavioral account of language?
    It was naive; language acquisition device is necessary for learning words for the first time
  27. What did Miller conclude about working memory capacity?
    We are limited to processing 5-9 items at a time; we could remember more items by splitting them into chunks
  28. What does Benjamin argue about the problems the world currently faces?
    They are mostly behavioral
  29. How does Benjamin describe the current relationship between the APA and the APS?
    • The gap has become wider
    • Quality of APA journals eroded by APS
  30. Benjamin points out that psychology has evolved from schools of psychology. How do most psychologists now identify themselves?
    Areas of research or practice
  31. What approach did James Mill use in raising John Stuart Mill?
    Mechanistic philosophy; reasoning machine devoid of emotion
  32. What did John Stuart Mill argue about psychology in A System of Logic?
    that it was a "science of human nature"
  33. What did Mill argue about the possibility of sex differences in bodily strength?
    There might be differences, but probably not; regardless, that wouldn't make one sex "superior"
  34. What did Mill argue was the first step toward the enfranchisement of women?
    For the woman to be educated; not rely on husband or father
  35. In what way did Mill agree with John Nichol about the role of conventialities in evidence about differences in ability between men and women?
    They need to be eliminated before nature can be determined. The affect women more than men.
  36. What did Mill believe about his intellect in comparison to that of Harriet Taylor?
    That Taylor was superior in intellect
  37. What was the triumvirate of Gestalt psychology, the three psychologists who did research on the phi phenomenon at the University of Frankfurt?
    • Kurt Koffka
    • Wolfgang Kohler
    • Max Weirtheimer
  38. Into what areas did Kurt Lewin extend Gestalt ideas?
    • motivation
    • social psychology
    • personality
  39. Why did Wertheimer and Lewin leave their professorships in Germany and take positions in the United States?
    To flee from Nazi Germany
  40. What was significant about Kohler’s 1933 letter to a Berlin newspaper?
    Criticized Nazi government
  41. In a letter to Kohler, Lewin described his concern that Jewish children would suffer “damage to their natural growth.” What did Lewin say would cause this damage?
    Being discriminated against
  42. Kohler writes that his resignation means the “abolition of German psychology for many years,” but he does not feel responsible. Why not?
    Because of the Nazi regime in Germany
  43. What was the importance of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision?
    Challenged law that would require separate cars for black and white people
  44. Where did the idea come from for Kenneth Clark’s studies on self-esteem and racial attitudes?
    His wife, who was doing research on racial attitudes in blacks in segregated vs non segregated schools using judgement tasks involving dolls of differing skin colors
  45. In a letter to William Delano, Kenneth Clark offers an explanation for why children in segregated schools are more damaged in self-esteem than children in unsegregated schools. What is Clark’s explanation?
    When children (in the south) were asked to identify with a doll, they chose a brown doll and said, "this is a nigger and I am a nigger". They accepted their inferior state.
  46. In a letter to Thurgood Marshall, how does Clark respond to questions from the attorneys for South Carolina?
    Basically, they have confused fact with prejudiced opinions, which are reflected by the authors (the attorneys).
  47. The Supreme Court indicated that desegregation should be done with “all deliberate speed.” Why did the court choose that wording?
    To otherwise delay, stall, or avoid desegregating schools
  48. Why did the APA allow the use of psychological science in the Brown v. Board of Education decision to go “officially unnoticed?”
    They didn't want to upset a bunch of racist people
  49. What did Wundt believe about how complex psychological processes could be understood?
  50. What was James’ complaint about the discreteness of words?
  51. How did the Behaviorists view language?
  52. How did the Gestalt psychologists view language?
  53. How did Chomsky change the way that language was viewed?
  54. What is the argument that the syntactic component of language is innate?
  55. Miller states that human language is a combination of two systems. What are these two systems?
  56. What were the independent and dependent variables in each study?
  57. What was the purpose of each study? What does each study find from their results?
  58. What is social psychology concept/theory each article studied? How does each study’s result explain that concept/theory through their studies?
  59. According to consensus, what event marks the beginning of modern psychology?
Card Set
Comprehensive Final based on A Brief History in Modern Psychology, 2nd Edition (Benjamin, 2014) and A History of Psychology in Letters, 2nd Edition (Benjamin, 2006).