1st Aid and CPR

  1. the immediate care given to an injured or suddenly ill person; doesnt take the place of proper medical care
    first aid
  2. things to have in your first aid kit
    gloves and mask, once you use try to REPLACE, try to have a triangular bandage
  3. ways to minimize the risk of a suit:
    • -obtain the victim's CONSENT before touching him
    • -Follow guidlines..do not do less and do not do more
    • -explain any first aid you are about to give
    • -once starting care for a victim, STAY with that person. you are legally bound to remain with the victim until care is turned over to an equally or better trained person
  4. A first aider must have the victims ________ before giving first aid.
  5. 2 types of consent
    expressed and implied consent
  6. who is does expressed consent apply too? and how do they give it?
    conscious competant adult (aware, awake/18 yrs+/responsible); doesnt have to be verbal consent or written can be a nod of the head
  7. who is implied response applied too?
    • unconscious; those who cant respond
    • involves an unresponsive victim with a life threatening condition
  8. what do you do for minors?
    assume implied consent if you can't find their parent or guardian
  9. what do you do if someone refuses help?
    document and get witness signature
  10. Leaving a victim after starting to give help without ensuring continued care at the same level or higher...have to stay till help arrives once you have started
  11. how can you leave and it not be considered abandonment?
    if you hand it over to someone of equal or higher trainin than you
  12. not following the accepted standards of care, resulting in further injury to the victim
  13. Negligence involves:
    • 1. having a duty to act (required to give first aid)
    • 2. breaching that duty (either by giving no care or by giving substandard care)
    • 3. causing injury and damages
    • 4. exceeding your level of training
  14. No one is required to give first aid unless a legal ____ exists.
    duty to act
  15. Duty to act could apply in the following situations:
    • -when employment requires it
    • -when on duty
    • -when a preexisting responsibility exists (for ex. a parent has a preexisting responsibility for a child, and a driver for a passenger)
  16. Happens when a first aider fails to provide the type of care taht would be given by a person having the same or similar training
    breach of duty
  17. Two ways to breach one's duty:
    acts of omission and act of commision
  18. the failure to do what a reasonably prudent person with the same or similar training would do in the same or similar circumstances
    act of omission
  19. doing something that a reasonably prudent person would not do under the same or similar circumstances
    act of commission
  20. dont share any infor unless it is important for the ppl helping the victim
  21. Laws designed to protect physicians and other medical personnel from legal actions that might arise from emergency treatment they provided while not in the line of duty; encourage ppl to assist others in distress by granting them immunity against lawsuits
    good samaritan laws
  22. The characteristics of emergencies
    • dangerous
    • unusual and rare
    • different from one another
    • unforeseen
    • urgent
  23. The ______ is a vital link between the ________ and the victim.
    • bystander
    • emergency medical services (ems)
  24. Who recognizes a situation as an emergency and acts to help the victim
  25. The series of decisions and actions quickly and reliably a bystander must do in an emergency
    • 1. Recognizing the emergency
    • 2. Deciding to help
    • 3. Calling 9-1-1 if EMS is needed
    • 3 1/2. Surveying the scene
    • 4. Checking the victim
    • 5. Giving first aid
  26. What 3 questions must one answer in the surveying the scene step?
    • 1. Are you going to be in any danger?
    • 2. What caused the injury? (this step helps you THINK before you ACT!)
    • 3. Number of victims?
  27. If 9-1-1 is not available or is not used there what do you do?
    Dial 0 for the operator or look in the front cover of a phonebook
  28. reasons bystanders are less likely to offer help in emergencies in public places
    • Lack of knowledge
    • Confusion about what is an emergency
    • Characteristics of the emergency
  29. 4 factors in realizing something is wrong with a victim
    • Severity
    • Physical distance
    • Relationship
    • Time exposed
  30. When you call EMS, speak _____ and ______. What info do you need to be ready to give the dispatcher?
    • slowly and clearly
    • -the victims location
    • -the phone numer you are calling from and your name
    • -what happened
    • -number of persons needing help and any special conditions
    • -victim's condition
    • **You do not hang up..let them hang up!**
  31. Can be transmitted from one person to another; also known as _____
    infectious disease; communicable diseases
  32. A set of precautions givin by the CDC which advise you to assume that all blood and certain body fluids pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases. *apply precautions in ALL situations in which you have contact with a victim.
    universal precautions
  33. Use ______ which is under the assumption that ALL body fluids are potentially infectious.
    body substance isolation (BSI)
  34. Infectious diseases can spread through:
    • blood or fluid splash
    • surface contamination
    • lack of or improper handwashing
  35. One of the simplest, yet most effectiove ways to control disease transmission.
  36. provides a barrier between the first aider and infectious diseases
    personal protective equipment (PPE)
  37. includes medical exam gloves, mouth-to-barrier devices, eye protection, and gowns
  38. diseases carried by an infected person's blood
    bloodborne diseases
  39. the virus taht can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); currently no vaccine available to prevent HIV infection
    HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
  40. spread by direct contact with infected blood; inflammation of the liver; vaccine available
    hepatitis b virus HBV
  41. can cause liver disease or cancer; cannot be cured, and there is no vaccine
    hepatitis C virus
  42. transmitted through the air by coughing or sneezing
    airborne diseases
  43. a chronic bacterialdisease that usually affects the lungs
  44. a potentially life threatening viral infection
  45. 5 stages of the grieving process
    • 1. Denial
    • 2. Anger
    • 3. Bargaining
    • 4. Depression
    • 5. Acceptance
  46. Oxygen from air is made available to the blood through the ________ and then to the body cells by the _______.
    • Respiratory system
    • Circulatory system
  47. (food tube) which leads to the stomach
  48. air is routed from the pharynx to the _____; (windpipe) which leads to the lungs
  49. the air we breath is ______; we exhale about ______
    • 21% oxygen
    • 16% oxygen
  50. normal respiration rate ranges for adults, children, and infants
    • adults 12-20 breaths per minute
    • children 15-30 bpms
    • infants 25-50 bpms
  51. we breath less as ______ and more/faster as _____
    adults; infants
  52. normal heart beat rates for adults, children, toddlers, newborns
    • adults 60-100 beats per min
    • children 80-100 bpm
    • toddlers 100-120 bpm
    • newborns 120-140 bpm
  53. the 4 chambers of the heart
    left/right atrium and left/right ventricle
  54. by relaxing and contracting pumps blood throught the vessels
  55. elastic, muscular tubes that carry blood AWAY from the heart
  56. where oxygen and food pass out of the bloodstream into the stationary cells of the body, while the body cells discharge their waste products into the bloodstream; carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed
  57. empty blood returning from the body into the right atrium and blood from the lungs into the left atrium
  58. each time the heart contracts, the surge of blood can be felt as a ______ at any point where an artery lies close to the surface of the body, near the skin surface and over a bone
  59. the majory artery of the NECK, which supplies the head with blood
    carotid artery
  60. the major artery of the THIGH supplying the lower extremities with blood (can be felt in the groin area)
    femoral artery
  61. the majory artery of the lower ARM (can be felt in the wrist)
    radial artery
  62. an artery of the UPPER ARM (can be felt on the inside of the arm)
    brachial artery
  63. located behind the inside ANKLE KNOB
    posterior tibial artery
  64. pulsations can be palpated on the top surface of the FOOT (20% of the population have no pulsations here)
    dorsalis pedis artery
  65. Blood comes to the heart on the ____ were the oxygen is ____ whereas the ____ side is ____ with oxygen
    • right side; low
    • left side; high
  66. _____ become capillaries and capillaries become _____ which become ______.
    • arteries
    • venules
    • veins
  67. where you can feel your pulse
  68. can apply pressure to ___ to slow down blood flow
  69. ____ has liquid and solid portions
  70. the liquid portion of the blood is called ______; it is 90% water; carries food materials picked up from the digestive tract and transports them to the body cells
  71. the solid portion, which is transported by the plasma, includes dislike red blood cells; slightly larger, irregularly shaped white blood cells; and an immense number of smaller bodies called _____
  72. give blood its color, carry oxygen to the organs
    red blood cells
  73. part of the body's defense against infection; can go whreever they are needed in the vody to fight infection
    white blood cells
  74. ______ are essential for the formation of blood clots
  75. a clear, watery solution similar to blood plasme that serves as a protective cushion and exchanges food and waste materials
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  76. the 33 bones of the spinal column (spine)
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • *5 sacrum and 4 coccyx= 9
  77. the arms largest bone and the two bones of the forearm
    • humerus
    • ulna (bigger one) and radius
  78. the skin consists of two layers:
    • outter layer-epidermis
    • inner layer-dermis
  79. surveying the scene is followed by _____; the first thing you do with your victim that determines whether there are lifethreatening problems requiring quick care
    initial check
  80. the 4 step process to do during the initial check
    • 1. determine if the victim is responsive
    • 2. ensure that the victim's airway is open
    • 3. determine if the victim is breathing: LOOK, LISTEN, FEEL for signs of breathing
    • 4. check for any obvious, severe bleeding
  81. CPR always begins with _____ and ends with ______
    • 30 compressions
    • breaths
  82. describes how reponsive a victim is
    AVPU scale
  83. AVPU scale
    • Alert
    • Verbal stimulus
    • Painful stimulus
    • Unresponsive to any stimulus
  84. secondary survey includes what two things
    • physical example
    • SAMPLE history
  85. essential in discovering what is wrong with the victim; start from head and work your way down
    physical exam
  86. two parts of the physical exam
    • LAF (look and feel)
    • DOTS (deformity, open wounds, tenderness, swelling)
  87. a victims's conditions you can see, feel, hear, or smell
    ex) bleeding
  88. things the victim feels and is able to describe; known as the chief complaint; have to be told
    ex) headache
  89. SAMPLE history
    • S symptoms
    • A allergies
    • M medications
    • P past medical history
    • L last oval intake
    • E events leading up to the illness or injury
  90. what is the recovery position
    on their left side
Card Set
1st Aid and CPR
CPR test