1. migration is structured by:
    • emigration policies
    • immigration policies (illegalization)
    • labour recruitment, military intervention, and FDI
    • colonialism and neocolonialism 
    • displacement (War, conflict, climate change)
  2. why study philippines?
    • high rates of migration
    • the philippines as the 'cool kids' of the block
  3. there are so many filipino migrant workes because
    • colonialism helped create institutional precursors of emigration
    • philippine state acts as a labour broker
  4. what does labour-brokering states do?
    • recruit, train, certify workers for a range of jobs
    • opens up new markets
    • labour diplomacy 
    • regulate private labour brokers
  5. what are the similarities between Philippines and Mexican migration?
    • high rates of emigration 
    • important source of remittances
    • caused by structural links and neocolonial relationship with the US
    • Both migrant groups subject to racial essentialism
  6. military intervention
    invasion, support for rebels (or government) in civil conflicts
  7. foreign direct Investment
    physical capital (factories, equipment, infrastructure) owned/built by foreign investors
  8. gender protectionist policies
    • gender-specific policies enacted by states to 'protect' women
    • philippine government: discouraged women from emigrating as hostesses to Japan
    • japanese government: issued fewer entertainer visas to philippine nationals
    •      -this is an example of migration as foreign policy
  9. hostesses experience indentured mobility
    no one forced these female migrants to do this job. They knew every aspect of this job + willingly took it
  10. why should we study the Syrian Refugee Crisis?
    • forced migration (displacement by war, climate change) is likely to occur with more frequency
    • exemplifies how countries deal with forced migration: 1) Canada: gendered refugee determination 2) EU: Externalization policies
  11. how Canada determines who is a 'real' refugee
    • general eligibility 
    • filling out the forms 
    • interview
  12. How do structures of exclusion shape migrant experiences?
    exclusion is structured along lines of race, gender, and class
  13. double punishment
    noncitizens that are profiled and punished by criminal justice system, now also 'punished' second time by immigration system
  14. deportation doesn't usually stop people from re-migrating
    • transnational ties (family, employer)
    • economic opportunity loss and debt - "indentured mobility"
    • stigma, shame and negative credentials
    • "home" doesn't feel like home
  15. Why keep doing something that is expensive and doesn't work?
    • immigration industrial complex
    • produces pliable labour (social control)
    • "border patrol capitalism"
    • 'border solutions' produce more 'problems'
    • neocolonialism and externalization policies
  16. how does foreign policy help us understand migration?
    • social/political and economic structures linked not seperate
    • migration a relation between nations: transnaitonal paradigm
  17. UN's definition of trafficking
    • transportation of an individual 
    • transportation under conditions of fraud, force or deception
    • transportation for purpose of exploitation (especially sexual exploitation), forced labour, or servitude
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