Anatomy Final

  1. Chapter 2
    The number of electrons in an atom is equal to
    Atomic number
  2. Chapter 2:
    A polar covalent bond between two atoms occurs when
    one atom attracts shared electrons more strongly than another atom.
  3. Chapter 2:
    Electrolytes are
    cations and anions that dissociate in water.
  4. Chapter 2:
    In a decomposition reaction...large ____ are broken down to form smaller ____
    large molecules are broken down to form small molecules.
  5. Chapter 2:
    What must be added to break apart ATP molecules?
    Heat energy
  6. Chapter 2:
    A decrease in the speed of a chemical reaction occurs if
    the concentration of the reactants increases.
  7. Chapter 2:
    Proteins that function as ___ are enzymes.
  8. Chapter 2:
    When sugar is dissolved in water, the water is called the
  9. Chapter 2:
    A solution with a pH of 5 is _______________ and contains _______________ H+ than a neutral solution.
    acidic, more
  10. Chapter 2:
    A buffer maintains a relatively constant ___
  11. Chapter 2:
    ___ becomes toxic if allowed to accumulate within cells.
    Carbon Dioxide
  12. Chapter 2:
    What is glycogen?
  13. Chapter 2:
    The polysaccharide used for energy storage in the human body is ___
  14. Chapter 2:
    The basic units or building blocks of triglycerides are
    glycerol and fatty acids.
  15. Chapter 2:
    A ____________ fatty acid has one double covalent bond between carbon atoms.
  16. Chapter 2:
    The ____________ structure of a protein results from the folding of the helices or pleated sheets.
  17. Chapter 2:
    In a normal situation all atoms are electrically ___
  18. Chapter 2:
    ___ are found in atoms of all elements EXCEPT for hydrogen?
  19. Chapter 2:
    Atomic number of an element is determined by the
    number of protons.
  20. Chapter 2:
    A covalent bond is characterized by
    sharing electrons by the atoms.
  21. Chapter 2:
    The number of naturally occurring elements is
  22. Chapter 2: 
    In ionic bonding electrons are ____ from one atom to another
  23. Chapter 2:
    Mass Number
    Number of protons + neutrons
  24. Chapter 2:
    Atomic Mass
    Average mass of naturally occurring isotopes
  25. Chapter 2:
    The hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a molecule of water are held together by a (an) __________ bond.
    polar covalent
  26. Chapter 2:
    ____ bond is a weak force between atoms in a molecule but is of enormous importance in physiology.
  27. Chapter 2:
    The complex and unique three-dimensional structure of a protein molecule is maintained largely by __________ bonds.
  28. When molecules are formed by sharing electrons equally, those molecules are called
    Non-polar covalent
  29. Small molecules combine to form
  30. One mole of carbon contains _________ atoms of carbon.
    Avogadro's number
  31. A ____ reaction is when two amino acids are bonded together to form a dipeptide.
  32. Catabolism is a collective term for all the body's _______ reactions.
  33. Electrolytes ____ when dissolved in water
  34. Synthesis reactions are particularly important in the body for ___ of body parts
  35. Energy stored in ATP is a form of _________ energy.
  36. A solution that resists changes in pH when H+ or OH(--) ions are added to it, is called a(n)
    Buffered solution
  37. When hydrogen ion concentration increases, pH ___
  38. Substances dissolved in the liquid portion of a solution are called the
  39. There are four vital organic compounds in the human body:
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  40. The primary structure of a protein is determined by the
    sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain.
  41. ____ is a source of nitrogen for the body?
  42. How many strands of nucleic acids are there in a DNA molecule?
  43. • Avogadro’s Number
    6.022 x 10^23
  44. Mole
    Avogadro’s number of atoms, ions,molecules
  45. Molar mass:
    mass of one mole of a substance in grams, which is equal to isotopic mass units.
  46. Molecular Mass
    determined by adding up atomic masses of its atoms or ions
  47. Intermolecular Forces
    Result from weak electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged parts or molecules, or between ions and molecules
  48. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    the complete or partial loss of an electron by one substance is accompanied by the gain of that electron by another substance
  49. Potential Energy
    energy stored in chemical bonds; energy that could do work if it were released. Breaking chemical bonds releases energy.
  50. Kinetic Energy
    does work and moves matter
  51. Mechanical Energy
    energy resulting from the position or movement of objects
  52. Chemical Energy
    form of potential energy in the chemical bonds of a substance
  53. Heat Energy
    energy that flows between objects of different temperature
  54. Inorganic Chemistry
    • generally,substances that do not contain carbon
    • – Water, oxygen
    • – Exceptions: CO, CO2, and HCO3-
  55. Organic Chemistry
    study of carbon-containing substances. Those that are biologically active are called biochemicals
  56. Concentration
    measure of number of particles of solute per volume of solution
  57. Osmolality
    reflects the number of particles dissolved in one kilogram of water
  58. osmole
    Avogadro’s number of particles in one kilogram of water.
  59. Acid
    a proton donor or any substance that releases hydrogen ions
  60. Base
    a proton acceptor or any substance that binds to or accepts hydrogen ions
  61. Salt
    a compound consisting of a cation other than a hydrogen ion and an anion other than a hydroxide ion. Example: NaCl
  62. Buffer
    a solution of a conjugate acid-base pair in which acid and base components occur in similar concentrations
  63. Neutral
    pH of 7 or equal hydrogen and hydroxide ions
  64. Acidic
    a greater concentration of hydrogen ions
  65. Alkaline or basic
    a greater concentration of hydroxide ions
  66. Carbohydrates
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    •  - Divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
    • – Example: glucose
    • – Energy sources and structure
  67. Lipids
    • composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    •  - Relatively insoluble in water.  Diffuse through cell membrane
    • .– Example: anabolic steroids
    • – Functions: protection, insulation, physiological regulation (movement in and out of cell), component of cell membranes, energy source
  68. Proteins
    composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,sometimes iodine.  Composed of amino acids.
  69. Lipids: Steroids
    Cholesterol, bile salts, estrogen, testosterone.
  70. Lipids: Eicosanoids
    • Derived from fatty acids.
    • – Function: Important regulatory molecules
    • – Include thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins
  71. Lipids:Fat-soluble Vitamins
    nonpolar molecules essential for normal functioning.
  72. Protein Structure: Primary
    sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
  73. Protein Structure: Secondary
    folding and bending of chain caused by hydrogen bonding
  74. Protein structure: Tertiary
    formation of helices or of pleated sheets; caused in part byS-S bonds between amino acids
  75. Protein Structure: Quaternary
    two or more proteins associate as a functional unit
  76. Basic Structure of the Cell
    Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm containing organelles, Nucleus
  77. Functions of the Cell
    Cell metabolism and energy use, Synthesis of molecules, Communication, Reproduction and Inheritance
  78. Anaphase
    Time during cell division when chromatids divide
  79. Pinocytosis
    Uptake of liquid by the cell
  80. Autophagia
    Segregation and disposal of organelles within a cell
  81. Sodium-Potassium exchange pump
    Uses energy derived from ATP to achieve the active transport of potassium ions opposite that of sodium ions
  82. Lipid Bilayer
    double layer of lipid molecules forming the plasma membrane and other cellular membranes
  83. Ion Channel
    Pore in the cell membrane through which ions move
  84. Centrosome
    specialized zone of cytoplasm close to the nucleus and containing two centrioles
  85. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm during cell division
  86. Gamete
    ovum or sperm
  87. Crenation
    denoting the outline of a shrunken cell
  88. Excitatory postsynaptic potential
    depolarization in the postsynaptic membrane that brings the membrane potential close to threshold
  89. Hypertonic
    solution that causes cells to shrink
  90. Intracellular
    between cells
  91. Cleavage furrow
    inward pinching of the cell membrane that divides the cell into two halves
  92. Hypotonic
    solution that causes a cell to swell
  93. Nuclear Envelop
    double membrane structure surrounding and enclosing the nucleus
  94. Competition
    similar molecules binding to the same carrier molecule or receptor site
  95. Anaerobic Breakdown
    breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce lactic acid and 2 atp
  96. Chromatid
    one half of a chromosome
  97. Facilitated diffusion
    does not require atp, moves substances into or out of the cell
  98. Mitosis
    cell division resulting in two new daughter cells
  99. Prophase
    First step in cell division. Chromatid condense to become chromosomes
  100. Meiosis
    Process of cell division that produces two gametes
  101. Cytoplasm
    protoplasm surrounding the nucleus
  102. Codon
    sequences of 3 nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid in DNA or MRNA
  103. Endocytosis
    Uptake through the cell membrane
  104. Peroxisome
    membrane bound bodies that either synthesize or decompose hydrogen peroxide
  105. Cytoplasmic Inclusion
    any foreign or other type of substance contained in the cytoplasm of a cell
  106. Cisterna
    interior of endoplasmic reticulum
  107. Golgi Apparatus
    package materials for secretion by the cell
  108. Somatic
    relating to the body
  109. extracellular
    outside the cell
  110. Microfilament
    small fibril forming bundles, sheets or networks in the cytoplasm of the cell
  111. Lysis
    cell swells and ruptures
  112. Cristae
    shelf-like infoldings of the inner membranes of an inner membrane
  113. Microtubule
    hollow tubes composed of tubulin. helps provide support
  114. Ventricle
    fluid filled cavity
  115. Pons
    portion of the brainstem between the midbrain and the madulla
  116. Falx Cerebelli
    dural fold between the two cerebral hemispheres
  117. Medulla Oblongata
    inferior portion of the brainstem that connects the spinal cord to the brain and contains autonomic centers controlling such functions as heart rate, respiration and swallowing
  118. Mesencephalon
    Midbrain. Consists of the cerebral peduncle and corpora quadrigemini
  119. Metencephalon
    Becomes the pons and cerebellum
  120. Corpus Striatum
    Caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
  121. Inferior Colliculi
    one of two rounded eminences of the midbrain; involved in hearing
  122. Myelencephalon
    Most caudal portion of the embryonic brain; medulla oblongata in adults
  123. Neural Crest
    edge of the neural plate as it rises to meet at the midline to form the neural tube
  124. Ifundibulum
    funnel shaped structures or passages that attach the hypophysis to the hypothalamus
  125. Mennix
    connective tissue membranes surrounding the brain
  126. Diencephalon
    In the inferior core of the adult cerebrum
  127. Neural plate
    region of the dorsal surface of the embryo that is transformed into the neural tube and neural crest
  128. Neural Tube
    tube formed from the neuroectoderm by the closure of the neural groove. The neural tube develops into the spinal cord and brain
  129. Notochord
    small rod of tissue lying ventral to the neural tube. a characteristic in all vertebrate. in humans it becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs
  130. Olfactory cortex
    termination of the olfactory tract in the cerebral cortex within the lateral fissure of the cerebrum
  131. Parasympathetic
    subdivision of the ANS characterised by having cell bodies of its preganglionic neurons located in the brainstem and the sacral region of the spinal cord. Usually involved in activating vegetative function (digestion, defecation, urination)
  132. Pineal Body
    pine cone shaped structure that produces melatonin
  133. Hypothalamus
    beneath the thalamus; important autonomic and neuroendocrine control center
  134. Substantia Nigra
    black nuclear mass in the midbrain; coordinating movement and maintaining muscle tone
  135. Superfirior Colliculus
    Midbrain; aids in eye movement
  136. Tectum
    roof of the midbrain
  137. Tegmentum
    floor of the midbrain
  138. thalamus
    large mass of grey matter that forms the larger dorsal subdivision of the diencephalon
  139. Telencephalon
    anterior division of the embryonic from where the cerebral hemispheres develope
  140. Tentorium Cerebelli
    dural folds between the cerebrum and the cerebellum
  141. membrane potential
    charge difference across the membrane
  142. Glycocalyx
    combination of carbohydrates and lipids (glycolipids) and proteins (glycoproteins)
  143. Phospholipids
    Polar heads facing water in the interior and exterior of the cell (hydrophilic); nonpolar tails facing each other on the interior of the membrane (hydrophobic)
  144. Cholesterol
    interspersed among phospholipids. Amount determines fluid nature of the membrane
  145. Integral or intrinsic
    • Extend deeply into membrane,often extending from one surface to the other
    • – Can form channels through the membrane
  146. Peripheral or extrinsic
    Attached to integral proteins at either the inner or outer surfaces of the lipid bilayer
  147. Marker Molecules
    Glycoproteins and Glycolipids
  148. Cadherins
    attach cells to other cells
  149. Integrins
    integral proteins that attach to extracellular molecule
  150. Transport Proteins
    • Hydrophilic region faces inward; charge determines molecules that can pass through
    • (channel proteins, carrier proteins, and ATP-powered pumps.)
  151. Nongated ion channels
    • always open
    • – Responsible for the permeability ofthe plasma membrane to ions when the plasma membrane is at rest
  152. Gated ion channels
    can be openedor closed by certain stimuli
  153. Ligand (chemical signal) gated
    ion channel: open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins
  154. Voltage-gated
    ion channel: open when there is a change in charge across the plasma membrane
  155. transporters
    • Integral proteins move ions from one side of membrane to the other
    • – Have specific binding sites
    • – Protein changes shape to transport ions or molecules
    • – Resumes original shape after transport
  156. Uniporters
    moves one molecule
  157. Symporters
    move two particles in the same direction at the sametime (cotransport)
  158. Antiporters
    move two particles in opposite directions at the sametime (counter transport)
  159. Diffusion
    Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration in solution
  160. Viscosity
    how  easily a liquid flows
  161. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively permeable membrane. Water moves from an area of low concentration of solute to an area of high concentration of solute
  162. Osmotic pressure
    force required to prevent water from moving across a membrane by osmosis
  163. Microtubules
    • hollow, made of tubulin.
    • • Internal scaffold, transport, cell division
  164. Microfilaments
    • Actin
    • - structure, support for microvilli,contractility, movement
  165. Intermediate filaments
    mechanical strength
  166. Peroxisomes
    • Smaller than lysosomes
    • – Contain enzymes to break down fatty acids and amino acids
    • – Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of breakdown
  167. Proteasomes
    • Consist of large protein complexes
    • – Include several enzymes that break down and recycle proteins in cell
  168. Cristae
    Infoldings of inner membrane
  169. Matrix
    Substance located in space formed by inner membrane
  170. Transcription
    • DNA used to form RNA
    • - RNA polymerase catalyses the formation of a mRNA chain using the DNA as a template and following the rules of complimentary base pairing– A with U– C with G
  171. Translation
    synthesis of a protein at the ribosomes using mRNA, tRNA and rRNA
  172. Interphase
    • phase between cell divisions
    • – Replication of DNA
    • – Ongoing normal cell activities
  173. Mitosis
    • series of events that leads to the production of two cells by division of a mother cell into two daughter cells. Cells are genetically identical
    • .– Prophase
    • – Metaphase
    • – Anaphase
    • – Telophase
  174. Cytokinesis
    division of cell cytoplasm
  175. Diploid
    two copies of chromosomes
  176. Haploid
    one copy of chromosomes, only in gametes
  177. Karyotype
    map of chromosomes
  178. Homologous
    pairs of chromosome where one is from the father and the other is from the mother
  179. Locus
    the location of a gene on a chromosome
  180. Hystology
    Study of tissues
  181. Germ Layers: Endoderm
    • Inner layer
    • • Forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives
  182. Germ Layers: Mesoderm
    Forms tissues as such muscle, bone, blood vessels
  183. Germ Layers: Ectoderm
    • Outer layer
    • • Forms skin and neuroectoderm
  184. Functions of Epithelial Tissue
    • -Protecting underlying structures
    • -Acting as barriers
    • -Permitting the passage of substances;
    • -Secreting substances
    • -Absorbing substances
  185. Simple Epithelium
    one layer of cells. Each extends from basement membrane to the free surface
  186. Stratified Epithelium
    more than one layer. Shape of cells of the apical layer used to name the tissue. Includes transitional epithelium where the apical cell layers change shape depending upon distention of the organ which the tissue lines
  187. Pseudostratified Epithelium
    tissue appears to be stratified, but allcells contact basement membrane so it is in fact simple
  188. Squamous
    - flat, scale-like
  189. Cuboidal
    - about equal in height and width
  190. Columnar
    • - taller than wide
  191. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Structure: single layer of flat cells
    • • Location: simple squamous- lining of blood and lymphatic vessels (endothelium) and small ducts, alveoli of the lungs, loop of Henle in kidney tubules, lining of serous membranes(mesothelium) and inner surface of the eardrum.
    • • Functions: diffusion, filtration, some protection against friction,secretion, absorption.
  192. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Locations: Kidney tubules, glands and their ducts, choroid plexus of the brain, lining of terminal bronchioles of the lungs, and surface of the ovaries.
    • • Structure:  single layer of cube-shaped cells; some types have microvilli(kidney tubules) or cilia (terminal bronchioles of the lungs)
    • • Functions:– Secretion and absorption in the kidney– Secretion in glands and choroid plexus– Movement of  mucus out of the terminal bronchioles by ciliated cell
  193. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Location. Glands and some ducts, bronchioles of lungs, auditory tubes, uterus,uterine tubes, stomach, intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts and ventricles of the brain.
    • • Structure: single layer of tall, narrow cells. Some have cilia (bronchioles of lungs,auditory tubes, uterine tubes, and uterus) or microvilli (intestine).
    • • Functions:– Movement of particles out of the bronchioles by ciliated cells
    • – Aids in the movement of oocytes through the uterine tubes by ciliated cells
    • – Secretion by glands of the stomach and the intestine
    • – Absorption by cells of the intestine.
  194. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Locations:
    • – Moist- mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, anus, vagina, inferior urethra,and cornea
    • – Keratinized- skin
    • • Structure: multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal in the basal layer and progressively flatten toward the surface. In moist,surface cells retain a nucleus and cytoplasm. In keratinized,surface cells are dead.
    • • Functions: protection against abrasion, caustic chemicals, water loss, and infection.
  195. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Locations: sweat gland ducts, ovarian follicular cells, and salivary gland ducts
    • • Structure: multiple layers of somewhat cube-shaped cells.
    • • Functions: secretion, absorption and protection against infections.
  196. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Locations: mammary gland duct, larynx, portion of male urethra.
    • • Structure: multiple layers of cells with tall thin cells resting on layers of more cuboidal cells.  Cells ciliated in the larynx.
    • • Function: protection and secretion.
  197. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    • Locations: lining of nasal cavity, nasal sinuses, auditory tubes,pharynx, trachea, and bronchi of lungs.
    • • Structure: all cells reach basement membrane. Appears stratified because nuclei are at various levels.  Almost always ciliated and associated with goblet (mucus-producing) cells.
    • • Functions:
    • – Synthesize and secrete mucus onto the free surface
    • – Move mucus (or fluid) that contains foreign particles over the free surface and from passages
  198. Transitional Epithelium
    • Location: lining of urinary bladder, ureters and superior urethra.
    • • Structure: stratified; cells change shape depending upon amount of distention of the organ.
    • • Functions: accommodates fluctuations in the volume of fluid in an organ or tube; protection against the caustic effects of urine.
  199. Desmosomes
    disk-shaped regions of cell membrane; often found in areas that are subjected to stress.
  200. Hemidesmosomes
    half of a desmosome; attach epithelial cells to basement membrane.
  201. Tight Junctions
    hold cells together,  form permeability barrier
  202. Gap Junctions
    • : protein channels aid intercellular communication.
  203. Endocrine glands
    no open contact with exterior; no ducts;produce hormone
  204. Exocrine glands
    • : open contact maintained with exterior; ducts
  205. Merocrine
    • No loss of cytoplasm.Secretion leaves by either active transport or exocytosis.
    • – Sweat glands.
  206. Apocrine
    • Fragments of the gland go into the secretion.  Apex of cell pinches off.
    • – Mammary glands.
  207. Holocrine
    • Whole cell becomes part of secretion.  Secretion accumulates in cell, cell ruptures and dies.
    • – Sebaceous glands.
  208. Functions of Connective Tissue
    • Enclose organs as a capsule and separate organs into layers
    • • Connect tissues to one another.  Tendons and ligaments.
    • • Support and movement. Bones.
    • • Storage. Fat.
    • • Cushion and insulate. Fat.
    • • Transport. Blood.
    • • Protect.  Cells of the immune system.
  209. Blasts
    • :  create the matrix, example osteoblast
  210. Cytes
    maintain the matrix, example chondrocyte
  211. Clasts
    break the matrix down for remodeling,example osteoclasts
  212. Hyaluronic acid
    polysaccharide. Good lubricant.Vitreous humor of eye.
  213. Proteoglycans
    : protein and polysaccharide. Protein part attaches to hyaluronic acid. Trap large amounts of water.
  214. Adhesive molecules
    • hold proteoglycan aggregates together. 
    • Chondronectin in cartilage, 
    • osteonectin in bone, 
    • fibronectin in fibrous connective tissue.
  215. Mesenchyme
    source of all adult connective tissue
  216. Tendons
    Connect muscles to bones;
  217. Ligaments
    Connect bones to bones.Collagen often less compact, usually flattened, form sheets or bands
  218. adipocytes
    • Predominant cells are 
    • Yellow(white): Most abundant type, has a wide distribution. White at birth and yellows with age.
    • Brown: Found only in specific areas of body: axillae, neck and near kidneys
  219. Hyaline Cartilage
    • Structure: large amount of collagen fibers evenly distributed in proteoglycan matrix. Smooth surface in articulations
    • • Locations:– Found in areas for strong support and some flexibility: ribcage, trachea, and bronchi
    • – In embryo forms most of skeleton
    • – Involved in growth that increases bone length
  220. Fibrocartilage
    • Structure: thick collagen fibers distributed in  proteoglycan matrix; slightly compressible and very tough
    • • Locations: found in areas of body where a great deal of pressure is applied to joints
    • – Knee, jaw, between vertebrae
  221. Elastic Cartilage
    • Structure: elastic and collagen fibers embedded in proteoglycans. Rigid but elastic properties
    • • Locations: external ears and epiglottis
  222. Cancellous or spongy bone
    trabeculae of bone with spaces between.Looks like a sponge.Found inside bones.
  223. Compact bone
    arranged in concentric circle layers around a central canal that contains a blood vessel.Found on periphery of bones.
  224. Hemopoietic Tissue
    • Forms blood cells
    • • Found in bone marrow
    • • Types of bone marrow
    • – Red: hemopoietic tissue surrounded by a framework of reticular fibers. Produces red and white cells
    • – Yellow: yellow adipose tissue
    • • As children grow, yellow marrow replaces much of red marrow
  225. Skeletal muscle
    most attached to skeleton, but some attached to other types of connective tissue. Striated and voluntary.
  226. Cardiac muscle
    muscle of the heart. Striated and involuntary.
  227. Smooth muscle
    muscle associated with tubular structures and with the skin. Nonstriated and involuntary
  228. Cell body
    contains nucleus
  229. Axon
    cell process; conducts impulses away from cell body; usually only one per neuron
  230. Dendrite
    cell process; receive impulses from other neurons; can be many per neuron
  231. Mucous membrane
    • Line cavities that open to the outside of body
    • – Secrete mucus
    • – Contains epithelium with goblet cells,  basement membrane, lamina propria (sometimes with smooth muscle)
    • – Found in respiratory, digestive,urinary and reproductive systems
  232. Serous membrane
    • Simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium, basement membrane, thin layer of loose C.T
    • .– Line cavities not open to exterior
    • • Pericardial, pleural, peritoneal
  233. Synovial membrane
    • Line freely movable joints
    • – Produce fluid rich in hyaluronic acid
  234. Labile
    capable of mitosis through life. skin, mucous membranes, hemopoietic tissue, lymphatic tissue
  235. Stable
    no mitosis after growth ends, but can divide after injury. Liver, pancreas, endocrine cells
  236. Permanent
    if killed, replaced by a different type of cell.  Limited regenerative ability. nervous, skeletal and cardiac muscle
  237. Structures that are part ofthe integument
    • Skin
    • – Hair
    • – Nails
    • – Glands
  238. Overview of Functions of integumentary system
    • Protection
    • – Sensation
    • – Temperature regulation
    • – Vitamin D production
    • – Excretion
    • – Immunity
  239. Keratinocytes
    • : most cells. Produce keratin for strength
  240. Melanocytes
    contribute to skin color. Melanin produced by these cells then transferred to keratinocytes. Same number of melanocytes in all people.
  241. Langerhans’ cells
    : part of the immune system
  242. Merkel’s cells
    detect light, touch, and superficial pressure
  243. Stratum basale (germinitivum)
    Deepest portion of epidermis and single layer. High mitotic activity and cells become keratinized
  244. Stratum spinosum
    Limited cell division. Desmosomes. Lamellar bodies and additional keratin fibers
  245. Stratum granulosum
    Contains keratohyalin. In superficial layers nucleus and other organelles degenerate and cell dies
  246. Stratum lucidum
    • Thin, clear zone. Found only in palms and soles
  247. Stratum corneum
    • Most superficial and consists of cornified cells
  248. Papillary
    Superficial (outer) 1/5. Areolar with lots of elastic fibers. Dermal papillae, capillary beds. Fingerprints. Whorls of ridges. Touch receptors (Meissner’s), free nerve endingssensing pain
  249. Reticular
    Deep (inner) 4/5. Dense irregular C.T. Collagen and elastic fibers. In the figure see: some adipose, hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, ducts of sweat glands, heat sensors.
  250. Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands
    Two types traditionally called apocrine and merocrine, but apocrine may secrete in a merocrine or holocrine fashion.
  251. Ceruminous glands
    modified merocrine sweat glands, external auditory meatus.
  252. Mammary glands
    modified apocrine sweat glands. Covered with reproductive chapter.
  253. Nail body
    • : stratum corneum
  254. Eponychium or cuticle
    corneum superficial to nail body, hyponychium is corneum beneath the free edge
  255. Matrix and nail bed
    cells that give rise to the nail
  256. Sensation:
    Pressure, temperature, pain,heat, cold, touch, movement of hairs.
  257. Temperature Regulation:
    • sweating and radiation.
    • -Sweat causes evaporative cooling.– Arterioles in dermis change diameter as temperature changes. More or less blood flows through the dermis.
  258. Chondroblasts
    • : form matrix
  259. Chondrocytes
    surrounded by matrix; are lacunae
  260. Perichondrium
    Double-layered C.T. sheath. Covers cartilage except at articulations– Inner. More delicate, has fewer fibers, contains chondroblasts– Outer. Blood vessels and nerves penetrate.  No blood vessels in cartilage itself
  261. Appositional
    New chondrocytes and new matrix at the periphery.New tissue added at surface (on outside).
  262. Interstitial
    Chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between the cells.
  263. Bone cells
    • Osteoblasts
    • – Osteocytes
    • – Osteoclasts
    • – Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells
  264. Woven bone
    : collagen fibers randomly oriented
  265. Lamellar bone
    : mature bone in sheets
  266. Osteoblasts
    Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis.Collagen produced by E.R. and golgi.  Released by exocytosis. Precursors of hydroxyapatite stored in vesicles, then released by exocytosis.
  267. Ossification
    formation of bone by osteoblasts.  Osteoblasts communicate through gap junctions.  Cells surround themselves by matrix.
  268. Fontanels
    large membrane-covered spaces between developing skull bones; unossified
  269. Closure of epiphyseal plate
    epiphyseal plate is ossified becoming the epiphyseal line. Between 12 and 25 years of age
  270. Bone remodeling
    Replacement of cancellous bone and damaged material by compact bone.Sculpting of site by osteoclasts
  271. Axial skeleton
    • Skull
    • – Hyoid bone
    • – Vertebral column
    • – Thoracic (rib) cage
  272. Appendicular skeleton
    • Limbs
    • – Girdles
  273. Articulation or Joint
    • Place where two bones (or bone and cartilage) come together
    • – Can be freely movable, have limited, or no apparent movement
    • – Structure correlated with movement
  274. Naming Joints
    • According to bones or parts united at joint- temporo-mandibular
    • – According to only one of articulating bones- humera
    • l– By Latin equivalent of common name- cubital
  275. Fibrous Joints
    • Characteristics
    • – United by fibrous connective tissue
    • – Have no joint cavity
    • – Move little or none
    • • Types: Sutures, Syndesmoses, Gomphoses
  276. Cartilaginous Joints
    • Unite two bones by means of cartilage
    • • Types
    • – Synchondroses: hyaline cartilage
    • – Symphyses: fibrocartilage
  277. Synovial Joints
    • Contain synovial fluid
    • • Allow considerable movement
    • • Most joints that unite bones of appendicular skeleton reflecting greater mobility of appendicular skeleton compared to axial
    • • Complex
  278. Flexion
    movement of a body part anterior to the coronal plane
  279. Extension
    movement of a body part posterior to the coronal plane
  280. Plantar flexion
    • standing on the toes
  281. Dorsiflexion
    footlifted toward the shin
  282. Abduction
    movement away from the median plane
  283. Adduction
    movement toward the median plane
  284. Rotation
    turning of a structure on its long axis
  285. Pronation/Supination
    refer to unique rotation ofthe forearm
  286. Circumduction
    • Combination of flexion,extension, abduction,adduction
    • – Appendage describes acone
Card Set
Anatomy Final
Anatomy final