Listening for Style and Structure

  1. Monophonic:
    one voice (or many of the same voice playing the same line)
  2. Polyphonic:
    2 or more voices play different things
  3. Homophonic:
    Voice w/ choral; harmonized melody
  4. Heterophonic:
    2 similar lines, but not exactly the same
  5. 8 Elements of Music:
    • Melody
    • Rhythm
    • Harmony
    • Texture
    • Timbre
    • Dynamics
    • Form
    • Word/Music Relationship
  6. Forms in Pop music:
    • AABA 32 bar form (Tin Pan Alley)
    • Verse-Chorus modern pop form
    • 12-bar blues
  7. Strophic form:
    Same melody, different words
  8. Conjunct:
    • Moving step-wise motion
    • Moving in leaps
  9. About: Medieval Music
    • Fall of Romans
    • Not really "pro" musicians, church is where the musical monks were
    • Most music was sacred
    • Monks performed Gregorian chant
  10. Medieval Chant:
    • Sung prayer to help meditate on meaning of the words
    • Monophonic, conjunct melody, all male, free time small dynamic range
  11. Who invented notation?
    Monks did, had not rhythm indicated
  12. Who developed 5-line staff and rhythmic notation?
    Guido developed both of these
  13. Organum:
    chant with intervals of 4ths and 5ths sung together
  14. First composers of Organum
    Leonin and Perotin of Notre Dame first composed it
  15. What makes free organum different from regular organum?
    Drone underneath the chant melody
  16. Parallel Organum
    type of organum with parallel 4ths and 5ths
  17. Ars Nova
    • transition to renaissance, late medieval
    • more rhythmic, secular text, polyphonic
  18. Estampie
    Medieval secular dance song
  19. About: Renaissance
    • more secular music, more education , larger middle class
    • musicians still in outdoor settings, dances, courtroom entertainment
    • lute very popular, written music widely available thanks to printing press
  20. Mass
    biblical text to music, popular in renaissance, choral
  21. Consort
    music for group of musicians
  22. Madrigal
    unaccompanied multi-voice music, secular text, often word painting
  23. Motet/Anthem
    sacred piece, not part of mass, choral
  24. About: Baroque
    • highly decorated, full of detail
    • church and courts mostly employed musicians
    • theatre was new for middle class with opera
    • opera invented in Florence, Italy
    • music was extravagant, ornamented, and detailed
  25. Baroque orchestra
    • mostly strings
    • harpsichord
    • sometimes woodwinds and brass
    • conductor not always used
  26. Continuo
    chordal instrument playing figured bass
  27. Basso Continuo
    harpsichord + bowed strings playing figured bass
  28. Concerto
    piece for soloist w/ orchestra
  29. Ritornello form
    starts with strong tutti form, then soloist, trade with orchestra, repeats, ends with tutti
  30. Programatic
    meant to tell a story, has themes
  31. Concerto Grosso
    concerto where the solo material is played by a small group
  32. Counterpoint
    2 or more melodies at the same time
  33. Ornamentation
    improv. trills and added notes tot he melody
  34. Chamber music
    One person per part
  35. Sonata
    instrumental piece, soloist w/ continuo accompaniment
  36. trio sonata
    2 solo instruments with accompaniment
  37. Suite
    collection of stylized dance pieces, usually for solo, 4-5 movements
  38. Binary form
    ABAB, often began a suite (prelude)
  39. Prelude
    through composed, intro
  40. Concertino
    • small group in concerto grosso
    • larger group in concerto
  41. Libretto
    words to opera
  42. Ground bass
    chromatic descending bass line, repeating, compositional framework
  43. Recitative
    spoken word part of opera turned into a song part
  44. Fugue
    • piece of imitative counterpoint
    • melody imitated in different registers and starting in different places
  45. da capo aria
    ABA form, very popular, second A embellished by singer
  46. Cantata
    religious piece sung during service
  47. Oratorio
    religious piece like cantata, not for service
  48. About: Classical
    • stronger middle class, composers make more money on sheet music
    • Vienna, Austria was new musical center
    • Big 3: Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven
    • Tuneful, balanced, clarity, use of piano
  49. String Quartet
    • invented by Hayden
    • 2 violin, viola, cello
    • all 4 parts equal, conversational composition
  50. Symphony
    • invented by Hayden
    • groups of instruments, all equal, conductor standard
  51. Antecedent and consequent
    question and answer phrases
  52. String Quartet/Symphony 4 movements
    • Sonata (fast, technical)
    • Slow Lyrical (often theme+variation)
    • dance-like movement (+trio)
    • rondo (ABACADA)
  53. Ethnomusicology
    study of music outside of western music
  54. Minuet + Trio form
    • ABĀ©AB
    • Each section except C repeated
  55. Divertimento
    music commissioned for a party
  56. Sonata form
    • A exposition
    • B development
    • A recapitulation
  57. About: Romantic
    • nationalism, incorporate folk music or national music
    • supernatural or diabolical themes
    • large bombastic ensembles
    • programatic music
  58. Lied
    German art song
  59. cycle:
    collection of songs, usually to accompany a cycle of poems to tell a story
  60. Opera buffo
    comedy opera
  61. Opera serio
    serious opera
  62. Opera singspiel
    opera w/ spoken word and singing
  63. Lietmotif
    characters of concepts have musical themes
  64. Cyclic Form
    Reusing themes in a collection of pieces
  65. programmatic symphony
    4 mvmt. symphony telling a story, each movement moving stroy forward and using each telling a different part of the story
  66. Double expo. concerto
    orchestra expo, soloist expo, cadenza by soloist at end
  67. Requiem
    mass at funeral
  68. Song cycle
    songs based on poems/stories, programatic, words+music
  69. Mazurka
    Polish folk dance in triple meter
  70. What influenced changes in 19th/20th century?
    • Globalization
    • Modernism
    • Audio tech
  71. Globalization
    • seeing/hearing new music
    • hearing different ways to write
  72. Modernism
    reject old, reinvent new music, dissolve tonality
  73. Avant garde
    doing what people aren't, ahead of masses
  74. Absolute music
    opposite to programatic, standalone
  75. Expressionism
    art movement in attempt to discover/express interior of ourselves
  76. Ultra rationality
    remove human element, no melody, total serialism
  77. Autodidant
    self-taught avant garde
  78. Minimalism
    music that is repetitive and only as much as it needs
  79. Post-Modernism
    skeptical interpretations of art and thought
  80. Aleatoric
    notation that leaves decisions up to performer
  81. Graphical score
    music in a graph to direct performer
  82. Globalism
    incorporating other musical traditions
  83. Layered textures
    layering musical lines
Card Set
Listening for Style and Structure
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