Resp 110

  1. Upper Airway Functions
    • Conductor of Air
    • Humidify and warm or cool inspired air
    • Prevent foreign material from entering
    • Involved in speech and smell
  2. Epiglottis Function
    Prevents the aspiration of food or liquids
  3. Everything Begins
    At the terminal bronchioles
  4. Inferior of larynx is composed of
    Cricoid Cartilage
  5. Which has the greatest cross section in the lungs
    Terminal Bronchioles
  6. Normal Respiratory Rate
  7. Eupnea
    Nommal, Spontaneous breathing
  8. Tachypnea
    Rapid rate of breathing
  9. Orthopnea
    Condition in which the individual is able to breath most comfortably only in the upright position
  10. Dyspnea
    Difficulty breathing
  11. Biot's Breathing
    • Irregular breathing followed by apnea
    • (Damage to medulla)
  12. Cheyne - Stoles Breathing
    • Apnea followed by irregular breathing followed by apnea
    • (Cerebral disorders and CHF)
  13. Kussmaul's Breathing
    • Irregular breathing
    • (Diabetic Acidosis)
  14. Hyperventilation
    ↑ pH ↓ CO2
  15. Hypoventilation
    ↓ pH ↑ Co2
  16. Barometric Pressure @ Sea level
  17. Water Vapor Pressure @ Sea level
  18. Alveolar Equation
    PaO2=(PB-47)FiO2-PaCO2 x 1.25
  19. I:E Ratio
    Normal 1:2
  20. The canals of Lambert are found on the
    Terminal brochioles
  21. Major Muscle of ventilation
  22. Right Lung
    • Upper Lobe
    •      Horizontal Fissure
    • Middle lung
    •      Oblique Fissure
    • Lower Lobe
  23. Left Lung
    • Upper Lobe
    •    Oblique Fissure
    • Lower Lobe
  24. What produces Surfactant
    Granular Pneumocytes (Type II cells)
  25. Apnea
    Complete absence of spontaneous ventilation
  26. Difference between Alveolar and Pleural Pressure
  27. How many alveoli do we have
    300 Million
  28. What does the Foramen Ovale become
    Small depression called Fossa Ovalis in the wall of right atrium
  29. Ductus Arterious eventually forms
    A fibrous cord called Ligamentum Arteriosum
  30. Airway Resistance
    • Adult: 0.5 - 1.5 cm H20/L/sec (Higher for COPD)
    • Neonate: 30 cm/H2O /L/sec
  31. Tidal Volume
    • Adults: 5 to 7 mL/kg
    • Neonate: 15 mL/kg
  32. Heart Rate
    • Adult: 60 to 100 bpm
    • Neonate: 130 to 150 bpm
  33. Hold of air in the lungs
    Static Compliance
  34. Movement of air in the lungs
    Dynamic Compliance
  35. Average Lung Compliance
    0.1 l/cmH2O
  36. Boyles Law
    Temperature Constant, Pressure Vary
  37. Charles Law
    Pressure Constant, Volume & Temperature Vary
  38. Gay Lussac's Law
    Volume Constant, Pressure & Temperature Vary
  39. Henry's Law
    Gas that dissolves in a liquid at a given temperature
  40. Increase in Ventilatory Rate
    Decreases Tidal Volume
  41. Type I Cells
    • Squamous Pneumocytes
    • 95% of alveolar surface
  42. CBABE
    • C = Cystic fibrosis
    • B = Bronchitis
    • A = Asthma
    • B = Bronchitasis
    • E = Emphysema
  43. Superior Lingula is found
    In the Left Lung, Lower Division of the Upper Lobe
  44. Umbilical Arteries atrophy and become
    The lateral Umbilial Ligament
  45. Ductus Venosis becomes the
    Ligamentum Venosis
  46. In the placenta, maternal blood is continuously pumped though the
    intervillous Space
  47. In the fetal circulation once the blood enters the right atrium most of the blood enters the left atrium by passing though the
    Foramen Ovale
  48. Normal V/Q
  49. In a healthy man, hematocrit is about
  50. Cause pulmonary vascular constriction
    Epinephrine & Dopamine
  51. The force the ventricles must work against to pump blood is called
    Ventricular afterload
  52. Ventilation
    Process that moves gases between the external environment and the alveoli
  53. During what phase do you produce more cardiac output
  54. Blood Flow though the HEART
    • Superior/Inferior Vena Cava ⇛Right Atrium ⇛
    • Tricuspid Valve ⇛Right Ventricle ⇛ Pulmonary Valve ⇛ Pulmonary Artery⇛ Lungs ⇛ Pulmonary Vein ⇛ Left Atrium ⇛ Biscuspid Valve ⇛ Left Ventricle ⇛ Aortic Valve ⇛ Aorta ⇛ Body
  55. Systolic (Contraction)
    Maximum pressure generated during ventricular contraction
  56. Diastole (Relaxation)
    Lowest pressure that remain in the arteries
  57. Right Venticular Heart Failure
    Enlargement of the right ventricle caused by primary lung disease, Increase in pulmonary resistance and work in the right heart
  58. Baroreceptors
    Regulate Blood Pressure
  59. Chemoreceptors
    Regulate Respiration
  60. Cholinergic (Cholinomimetic)
    Drug that stimulates a receptor for Acetylcholine
  61. When arranged for Flow Poiseuille's Law states that Flow is
    Directly proportional to P and inversely proportional to n
  62. Usually elevated in patients with asthma
  63. Suggest a bacterial infection
  64. Causes Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
    • Hypercapnia
    • Hypoxia
    • Acidema
    • Increased H+ concentration
  65. Pulmonary System
    Begins with the pulmonary trunk and ends in the left atrium
  66. Systemic System
    Begins with the Aorta and ends in the right atrium
  67. Hematocrit
    • Males: 45%
    • Females: 42%
    • Neonates: 45-60%
  68. Granulocytes (WBC)
    • Neutrophils: 65% of total WBC, Phagocytize invading bacteria
    • Eosinophils: Elevated in Asthma patients
    • Basophils: Increased in Allergic and Inflammatory reactions
  69. Agranulocytes (WBC)
    Lymphocytes: T-cells act directly against virus infected cells and tumors. B-cells give rise to plasma which produce antibodies
  70. Dissolved
    O2 is in the plasma
  71. Bound
    O2 is in Red Blood Cells
  72. Total Blood Content
    CaO2= (Hb x 1.34 x SaO2) + (PaO2 x 0.003)
  73. Functional unit of the kidney
  74. Functional unit of the lungs
  75. Hypoxic Hypoxia
    • Low O2 in the tissue cells
    • (Hypoventilation, High Altitude)
  76. Anemic Hypoxia
    • Low O2 carrying capacity of hemoglobin
    • (Anemia, Hemorrhage)
  77. Stagnant (Circulatory) Hypoxia
    • O2 not adequate to meet tissue needs
    • (Venous shunt)
  78. Histotoxic Hypoxia
    • Impaired ability of the tissue cells to metabolize O2
    • (Cyanide Poisoning)
  79. Hypoxemia ( Low O2 in the Blood)
    • Normal: 80-100
    • Mild: 60-80
    • Moderate: 40-60
    • Severe: <40
  80. Stoke Volume
    Volume of blood ejected from the ventricle during each contraction
  81. Cardiac Output
    • Blood pumped per minute from the heart
    • CO=SV x HR
  82. Carbonic Acid - Bicarbonate
    • Buffer system and acid base balance
    • Work to resist sudden changes in blood pH
    • Ratio: 20:1
  83. ADH
    • Produced by the hypothalamus and is released by the pituitary gland
    • Allows re absorption
  84. Glomerular Filtration
    • Capsule that gets the blood into the kidneys
    • Filtrates 99% of blood going into kidneys
  85. Newborns have 24 million
  86. Apnea
    • Complete absence of spontaneous ventilation
    • Anything more than 20 sec
  87. Eupnea
    Normal, Spontaneous breathing
  88. Dyspnea
    Difficulty breathing
  89. Expiration
    Passive ventilation
  90. Inspiration
    Active ventilation
  91. Kidney Location
    Posterior wall of the abdominal cavity
  92. Deactivates Acetylcholine
  93. Normal Urine Output
  94. Sympathetic system
    When activated neural transmitters such a epinephrine and noreepinephrine
  95. Parasymthathetic System
    When activated the neural transmitter Acetylcholine is released
  96. Normal calculated anatomical shunt
  97. Glomerular filtration is directly proportional to
    Hydrostatic Pressure
  98. Tubular readsorbtion occurs primary in the
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  99. The bulk of the CO2 produced in the cells is transported to the lungs as
  100. Protects the lungs from excessive inflammation
    Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex
  101. Alveoli continues to increase until
    12yr of age
  102. Anatomical Dead space
    Physical pressure  - Alveolar pressure
  103. What is decreased compliance
    ↑ Ventilation rate ↓Tidal Volume
  104. Surfactant Appears
    @ 36 weeks
  105. Sends messages out to the CNS
  106. Anatomic dead space increases in response to
    ↑ Ventilatory Rate
  107. P50
    Partial Pressure at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated with O2 @ 27torr
  108. Oxygen dissociation curve
    Shows how blood carried O2 though the body
  109. Left Shift (Alkaline)
    pH ↑
    • O2 affinity for hemoglobin Increases
    • (easier time making the bond w/O2)
  110. Right Shift ( Acidic)
    pH ↓
    • O2 affinity for hemoglobin Decreases
    • (harder time making bond w/ O2)
  111. Normal Hb
    • Males: 14-16
    • Females: 12-15
    • Neonates: 14-20
  112. V/Q Mismatch
    If @ 60% FiO2 patient gets better
  113. V/Q Shunting
    If @ 60% FiO2 patient has no improvement
  114. V/Q calculation
    Divide V/Q
  115. Duration of flow
    Pressure (psi) x Cylinder / Flow
  116. E Tank
  117. H Tank
  118. ASSS
    • American Standard Safety System
    • H cylinder / High pressure
    • Have Threaded valve outlet
  119. PISS
    • Pin Index Safety System
    • E cylinder / High Pressure
    • Have Post Valve and Yoke Connector
  120. DISS
    • Diameter Index Safety System
    • Low Pressure
  121. Low Flow Devices
    • 8L/min or less
    • Nasal Cannula
    • Simple Mask
    • Partial rebreathing mask
    • Nonrebreathing mask
  122. Air Entrainment Mask (Venturi)
    Deliver controlled FiO2
  123. ROP Retinophathy of Prematurity
    Eye disease or blindness in premature infants caused by high concentration of O2
  124. When the blood pH decreases the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the
    Right and the P50 Increases
  125. What gas to use to treat hypoxic respiratory failure
    Nitric Oxide (NO)
  126. Gas used with O2 to manage severe airway obstruction
  127. Oxygen toxicity is a concern when FiO2 is at or above
    60% or more for 24hr
  128. Nitrous Oxide
    • Anesthetic gas
    • Has been linked to fetal disorders
  129. Heliox
    Used to treat severe large airway obstruction sush as life threatening asthma
  130. The lowest PO2 would normally be found in what location
  131. One what does the movement of gases between the lungs and the body tissues mainly depend
    Gaseous Diffusion
  132. Autonomy
    Uphold a patients right to refuse treatment
  133. Respiratory care programs are accredited by
  134. Branch of law concerned with the recognition and enforcement of the rights and duties of private individuals and organizations
    Civil Law
  135. Civil wrong committed against an individual or property for which a court provides a remedy in the form of damage
    Tort Law
  136. Code of ethic
    How we should act/ Practice within our scope
  137. Quality assurance of a respiratory department
    Any evaluation of service provite and the results achieved compared with accepted standards
  138. Joint Commission are going to make sure that
    Quality assurance is meet
  139. The scope of practice of respiratory care
    Anything to do with the cardiopulmonary system
  140. Malpractice
    Unprofessional misconduct that cause injury or harm to the patient
  141. Risk Management
    • Assessments done
    • Identification assessment and prioritization of risks followed
  142. CEU
    Continuing Education Units
  143. Respiratory Initial Association (AARC) formed in
  144. Beneficence
    Passing on ones believes
  145. Negligence
    Erratic Behavior
  146. AARC
    American Association of Respiratory Care
  147. Vesicular
    Normal breathing sound
  148. Bronchial
    Abnormal (Pneumonia)
  149. Diminished
    Reduced/Decreased (COPD, Athma) or Fluid (Pneumothorax, Pleural effusion)
  150. Wheezing
    Obstructed airway (Asthma, CHF)
  151. Stridor
    Obstructed Upper Airway (Croup, Epiglottis)
  152. Coarse Crackles
    Inspiratory & Expiratory (Pneumonia  & Bronchitis)
  153. Fine Crackles
    Late Inspiratory (Atelectasis, Pulmonary Edema)
  154. O2 is measured by a
    Clark Analyzer
  155. CO2 is measured by a
    Servinghouse Analyzer
  156. Lest Shift (Increased affinity)
    Easier to make bond with O2
  157. Right Shift (Decreased affinity)
    • Harder to make bond with O2
    • More unloading of O2
Card Set
Resp 110
Random/ Notes for final