soc 100 final

  1. who said "religion is the opiate of the masses"
  2. religion is often _____ and _______
    • prescriptive (offers direction for important choices, ethics)
    • explanatory (explains the world)
  3. religion is a form of ________
    • culture (beliefs and practices)
    • takes many forms
  4. Liberation theology
    • christianity and socialism come together?
    • happened at the height of the cold war
  5. in 2011, ____ of Canadians identified as Christian
    • 67.3%
    • Mainstream Christianity groups: roman catholic and protestant groups
  6. religous demographic in Canada is _____
    • changing
    • we are becoming increasingly diverse as a nation
    • also growing number who identify with "no religion" - what does this actually mean?
  7. functional definitions of religion
    • focus on what the religion does for the social group and the individual
    • ie. social cohesion
  8. substantive definitions of religion
    • examine what religion is, what does not count as religion
    • tend to emphasize core elements like belief in a higher being, a set of prescribed beliefs and rituals
  9. is church of satan a religion?
    they don't believe in a higher power, so is it a religion?
  10. how did religion affect social cohesion?
    • Durkheim
    • religion greatly contributed to social cohesion
    • at its core, religion is a social/group phenomena 
    • argued society divided the world into a binary, differentiating between things deemed sacred and profane (sacred = focus of religion)
  11. what problems do new religious movements face?
    • they face stigma, harassment, denial of beliefs
    • have a hard time gaining legitimacy
  12. secularization looks at:
    • how important is religion in different public sectors?
    • how many people are "religious"?
  13. In Canada, is there separation of church and state?
    • No
    • but, church has no authority over the state
  14. social movements
    • attempts to modify/overthrow existing power relations, often by working outside the formal political process
    • normally comprised of non-elite members of society with little or no control over major economic, symbolic, political, or military resources
  15. protest
    an organized public demonstration expressing strong objection to an official policy or course of action
  16. riot
    a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd
  17. differentiation between riots and protests can depend on ______
  18. Le Bon
    • The Crowd (book)
    • anonymity
    • less resistant to hypnotic effects
    • emotional contagion
  19. academic criticism of Le Bon
    • critical of any approach that discredits crowd disorder as irrational, doesn't give it any underlying meaning or justification
    • people may behave differently in a crowd but they still know what they're doing
    • rationalize what they're doing
  20. power
    (Weber def) ability to realize one's will despite the resistance of others
  21. power as relational
    • ability to pursue your dreams and ambitions is highly affected by power relations and your place within them
    • continually contested, not a fixed possession
  22. modern state
    • notions of civil society, middle class
    • rose during the Industrial Revolution
    • urban middle-classes created and power was increasingly based on money and capital ownership
  23. development of bureaucracies
    • 1800s
    • organizational form that utilize impersonal practices and procedures
    • authority comes with the title, not the qualities of the individual who has the title
  24. two of Weber's seven essential features of bureaucracies
    • formal system of rules
    • separation of the person from the office
  25. material processes
    • those who control material resources can realize their will over others, exercise and challenge power
    • during industrial era, became moreso who controlled the means of production
  26. Weber on materialism?
    • agreed with marx that industrial societies were stratified
    • but thought there were other ways for power to be asserted:
    • class
    • status (prestige)
    • party (organizational and institutional resources)
  27. Mills thoughts on power
    • after the second world war, US was controlled by a group of corporate, military, and political leaders
    • they controlled the interlocking hierarchies of the economy, army, and state
  28. hegemony
    • working class do not revolt under difficult circumstances because elites manufacture consent of the population by enlisting social institutions 
    • counter-hegemonic ideals must be generated to challenge existing power and bring change
  29. institutionalist societies are concerned with ______
    the institutions that shape political outcomes
  30. institutions
    • set the rules and guidelines around social interactions
    • patterns of behavior that order people's lives in predictable ways
    • establish stable patterns that are not easily changed
    • once estabilished, institutions can affect types of decision-making by encouraging different "paths" of action
  31. Theda Skocpol
    • studies on revolutions in China, France, Russia
    • showed how each was related to the inability of existing state structures to cope with crises, so revolutionaries could take advantage
    • looked at institutions that governed at the time
  32. globalization
    social process by which traditional constraints posed by geography, economic activity, culture, and social configurations have diminished and replaced by international processes
  33. transnationalism
    may see more interaction across borders, but these changes aren't global
  34. framing theory
    • need for "collective action frames" to identify grievances, promote a cause, shape a common identity
    • examines how collective understandings are created and communicated in order to realize objects
  35. political processes approach
    • social movements determined by opportunities (scandal, unhappiness) and constraints (funding, access to media, organizational problems)
    • suggests that politics can be characterized by constraints and opportunities
  36. Hacktivism
    subversive use of computers and networks for political ends
  37. slacktivism
    minimal efforts ("likes") for political ends
  38. 3 core framing tasks of framing theory
    • 1. diagnostic frames define social problems, injustices
    • 2. prognostic frames articulate solutions and strategies for positive social change
    • 3. motivational frames compel people to join the social movement
  39. why do some movements succeed and others fail?
    • unity and diversity have tradeoffs
    • diversity can = broad membership, but which may end up fragmentation -> disagreement
    • unity around a specific single common goal = powerful, but can't sustain a lasting movement once achieved
  40. today, politics and social movements are often _______
  41. convergence
    makes people, societies, states more similar
  42. divergence
    makes the world unequal, differentiated, diverse
  43. world system perspective
    • current economic globalization is simply a continuation of a series of long economic cycles in the capitalist world system
    • rejects "national" development
    • unequal power hierarchy where capital accumulation flow from periphery to core
  44. what theory did the unequal power hierarchy part of world system perspective develop from?
    • Marx's dependency theory
    • during mid 20th century, some countries weren't moving ahead like other countries were
    • dependency theory stated that this was part of the plan, meant to be exploited by those with the capital
  45. world system perspective's sorting of states?
    • developed core
    • semi-periphery (ex. China) exploited and exploiter
    • underdeveloped periphery
  46. structural adjustment programs
    • world bank/IMF(??) told less developed countries to open up to foreign trade, required lots of privatization (like water)
    • private enterprises bought up their state-owned industry, exploited them
  47. world society perspective
    • why do states share similar structures despite their diverse histories?
    • from common set of "world cultural" norms, scripts, models adopted by states
    • come from efforts of NGOs, intergovernmental bodies, experts
  48. institutional isomorphism
    countries want to look like they're following the norm
  49. (world society perspective) states are motivated to enact the prescribed scripts by ______
    • embeddedness and model density 
    • states embedded in relations with each other
    • adoption of models by other states makes them more attractive
  50. Giddens
    • time-space compression
    • distances shrink, time is accelerated or compressed
  51. glocalization
    • mixing of global and local
    • how globalized identities, products, and structures are adapted and modified in local practice
  52. world systems theory explains ______
    inequality and exploitation
  53. world society theory explains _______
    isomorphism and similarities
  54. space/time explains ______
    increasing global interconnectedness, mixing of global and local, changes in space/time
  55. neo-liberalism
    • promotes the efficacy of free markets, limited gov't, private property
    • as an economic model: market forces are the way to organize society, allocated resources. likes privatization, deregulation, free flow of capital, minimal gov't interference in market activities
  56. if ur a neoliberalist: more competition leads to _____
    greater consumer choice and efficiency
  57. if ur a neoliberalist: global economic integration is ______
  58. if ur a neoliberalist: individual or society/group?
    primacy of individual over society/group
  59. digital divide
    • seperation of people who have internet and those who don't (rural areas, people who can't afford it)
    • even if you have the internet, you have to know how to use it
  60. with globalization, more ________ movement across nations
    temporary and permanent
  61. globalization promotes ______ and ________
    convergence and divergence
  62. globalization is a complex set of processes linked to:
    • capitalism
    • insitutional isomorphism
    • changes in time/space
  63. what would a scientist say knowledge is?
    knowledge/truth is produced through rigorous objectivity and the application of the scientific mind
  64. what would a sociologist say knowledge is?
    knowledge is the product of social processes
  65. Robert Merton's Scientific Norms (CUDOS)
    • communalism 
    • universalism
    • disinterestedness
    • organized skepticism
  66. communalism (CUDOS)
    the products of science belong to the whole scientific community (discoveries are not a secret)
  67. universalism (CUDOS)
    all scientists can contribute without being judged on personal characteristics
  68. disinterestedness (CUDOS)
    scientists do not act out of personal gain
  69. organized skepticism (CUDOS)
    • claims are exposed to critical scrutiny and peer review 
    • science is self-critical
  70. what did science include once sociologists started seeing it as a social enterprise?
    • self-interest
    • power
    • ritual
    • tradition
    • symbolism
  71. Thomas Kuhn
    • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
    • incl. scientific paradigms, problem-solving, anomalies, change
    • argues that science itself is a social enterprise
    • commits ppl to seeing the world in a certain way, which explains why it can withstand a fair amount of contradictory evidence  (anomalies)
    • dogmatic principles?
  72. social construction: scientific facts are ________
    • constructed
    • process of construction is tidied up in written accounts
  73. Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar
    • "Laboratory Life"
    • treated a laboratory like a different culture/tribe
    • how does a lab work as a social institution?
  74. Public Understanding of Science
    • how is scientific knowledge being constructed and used in public domains?
    • used to exert authority, or as a basis for decision-making (politics)
  75. symbolic interactionism
    • focuses on interaction among individuals and the everyday use of symbols
    • symbols come to be shared through the process of socialization
  76. symbolic interactionism in the media:
    • its microsociological focus gives it a limited applicability
    • doesn't easily extend to how media institutions are organized/their role in society
  77. structural functionalism in the media
    • this macrosociological theory focuses on social order
    • order is maintained by a shared consensus about social norms (social cohesion)
  78. media contributes to social oder by performing four functions:
    • surveillance of the environment
    • correlation of parts of society (cohesion)
    • transmission of social heritage (how culture carries forward ideas, beliefs, etc)
    • entertainment (maintaining social order diffuses tensions of society?)
  79. conflict theory in the media:
    • macrosociological theory, concentrates on social conflict bw unequal groups and change
    • allows sociologists to question rather than defend media institutions
  80. feminism in the media
    • contemporary feminist theory on the media concerned with several themes: 
    • difference (how the media justifies inequality bw men and women on the basis of natural differences)
    • voice (degree to which women are denied opportunity to speak in various forms of communication)
    • representation (ways in which women are depicted in the media, consequences of these characterizations
  81. two main types of critical theory
    • political economy
    • cultural studies
  82. political economy
    focuses on ownership/control of the media, gov't policy/regulation, conflicts over ownership, policy, globalization
  83. cultural studies
    emphasizes importance of the ideology embedded in media content, interpretation by audience members, efforts to change media representations/provide alternate messages
  84. public ownership
    • media owned by the gov't (ex. CBC)
    • freely available, education, ensures a Canadian voice
  85. private ownership
    media owned by commercial firms, content based on ability to produce profit
  86. types of private media ownership: vertical integration
    • one firm owning media enterprises that link production, distribution, and exhibition or retail to guarantee an outlet for prices
    • may prevent content from other sources
  87. net neutrality
    principle that internet providers should enable access to all content regardless of the source, without favoring or blocking any particular products or websites
  88. types of private media ownership: cross-ownership
    when a media company owns organizations that are associated with diff types of media for efficient, economical use of administrative costs
  89. types of media ownership: conglomerate
    • a company that owns many firms engaged in a variety of business activities (media may be a major or minor part of the business)
    • combines horizontal or vertical or cross-ownership
  90. surveillance
    routine collection of data about individuals w the specific purpose of governing, regulating, managing, or influencing what they do in the future
  91. power and surveillance
    if surveillance is about monitoring and data collection for the purposes of governing, managing, or influencing
  92. cyber-utopianism
    • technologies will liberate us from power structures
    • liberate = decentralize power hierarchies
  93. cyber-pessimism/realism
    technologies are used to benefit powerful corporations and states
  94. the new empowerment
    we can use technologies to profoundly affect one another (for good and bad)
  95. digital enclosure
    • an interactive (thru "new media") realm wherein every action and transaction generates information about itself
    • creates a digital record
  96. "asymmetrical loss of privacy"
    we're becoming more transparent, but companies collecting the info are opaque
Card Set
soc 100 final
chapters 13, 14, 15, 17