What is geography?
- The science that studies the relationships among
- 1. Natural systems
- 2. Geographic areas
- 3. Society
- 4. Cultural activities
- and the interdependence of all of these OVER SPACE
What are three different aspects of geography?
- 1. It is a method not a body of knowledge
- 2. It is holistic
- 3. It is eclectic
What is the nature of science? 3 points
- 1. Science has developed out of the efforts of man to EXPLAIN his physical / natural environment
- 2. The strength of science derives from the fact that laws are based on experiments (data)
- 3. The exciting nature of science its capacity for PREDICTING how nature will behave in one situation based on experimental data
What are the 6 steps to the scientific method?
- 1. Real world - observe nature
- 2. Observations and measurements - collect data from nature
- 3. Inductive reasoning - explain, analyze and interpret data
- 4. Hypotheses - search for patterns, order and processes
- 5. Predictions - experiment and test to verify or reflect hypothesis
- 6. General theory/governing laws - theory formulation
What are Earth's 4 spheres?
- 1. Atmosphere - air
- 2. Hydrosphere - water
- 3. Lithosphere - ground
- 4. Biosphere - living systems
What is systems theory?
Ordered, interrelated set of things and their attributes, linked by flows of energy and matter, distinct from their surroundings.
What is the difference between an open and a closed system?
An open system has an input flow into the system, whereas a closed system is shut off from its surroundings.
Is Earth an open or closed system?
- In terms of physical matter and resources, it is a closed system.
- in terms of energy, Earth is an open system.
What is the difference between positive system feedback and negative feedback?
Positive feedback enhances the original change (the result increasingly differs from the starting state)
whereas negative feedback damps down or diminishes the original change. (tends to preserve the starting state)
What is equilibrium in terms of system feedback?
The system remains balanced over time.
What are the Earth's equatorial and polar circumferences?
Equatorial circumference equals 40,075 km.
Polar circumference equals 40,008 km
The difference is due to the Geoidal bulge at the equator.
What is the diameter of the earth at the equator and from pole to pole?
- Diameter at the equator = 12,756 km
- Diameter between the poles = 12,714 km
What are the 9 latitudinal geographic zones?
- Arctic: 66.5°N to 90°N at North Pole
- Subarctic: 55°N to 66.5 °N
- Midlatitude: 35 °N to 55 °N
- Subtropical: 23.5 °N to 35 °N
- Equitorial and Tropical: 23.5 °N to
- 23.5 °S
- Subtropical: 23.5 °S to 35 °S
- Midaltitude: 35 °S to 55 °S
- Subantarctic: 55 °S to 66.5 °S
- Antarctic: 66.5 °S to 90 °S at South Pole
What are the most northern Italy and southern Lee circles of latitude on earth had which the Sun may appear directly overhead at its culmination?
Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at around 23.5 °N
Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at around 23.5 °S
*The sun will appear directly overhead at the tropics once a year during the northern and southern solstices.
What are the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the earth?
- 1. Arctic circle : 66.5 °N
- 2. Tropic of Cancer : 23.5 °N
- 3. Equator : 0°NS
- 4. Tropic of Capricorn : 23.5 °S
- 5. Antarctic circle : 66.5 °S
Lines of longitude at 0 ° and 180 °?
0 ° is the prime Meridian at Greenwich England
180 ° is called the international date line which lies in the Pacific ocean West of Hawaii
What is the relationship between time zones and lines of longitude?
The earth is divided into 24 time zones, each 15 degrees of longitude in width. Since the world rotate once every 24 hours on its axis and there are 360 degrees of longitude, each hour of Earth's rotation reprezent 15 degrees of longitude
What is a great circle? Give two examples
- A line that divides the globe into equal halves.
- 1. the equator is a great circle.
- 2. each pair of meridians also forms a great circle
What is a map?
A map is a graphic representation of all or part of the Earth's surface, drawn to scale on a two dimensional surface
What is a scale on a map?
The scale is the ratio of map units to ground units
What is projection?
The process of transforming the spherical earth to a flat map
What is the difference between active remote sensing and passive remote sensing?
- Active remote sensing sends out its own energy which is reflected back to it.
- Example: Radar
- Passive remote sensing on the other end receives reflected solar energy or emitted energy
- Example: visible light, infrared and thermal energy
What is GIS?
Geographic Information Systems combine spatial (where it is) and attribute (what it is) data which can contain multiple data layers including physical features and cultural features.