BIology Ch. 4

  1. Word Roots
    Hydro = water
    Iso = equal
    Carb = coal
    Enanti = opposite
    Sulf = Sulfur
    Thilo = Sulfur
  2. Organic Chemistry
    • Chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds.
    • (i.e. simple molecules, such as methane CH4, to colossal ones, such as proteins with thousands of atoms.)
  3. Hydrocarbon
    • Organic molecules consisting of hydrogen and carbon only.
    • (Hydrocarbons are major components of fossil fuel, consisting of partially decomposed remains of million-year old organisms. Hydrocarbon not prevalent in living organisms, but some molecules consists of them. Ex. Fat (long hydrocarbon tails attached to non-hydrocarbons) and petroleum do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic), because bonds are nonpolar carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
  4. Isomer
    compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties. 3 TYPES: Structural, Geometric, and Enantiomers.
  5. Structural Isomer
    same molecular formula but different in covalent arrangement of carbon skeletons (different covalent partners). Ex. 2 five carbon compounds have different structure; hence, different properties.
  6. Geometric Isomer
    Same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangement.
  7. Enantiomer
    • Isomers that are mirror images of each other.
    • (Figure 4.7 carbon is called the asymmetric carbon because it is attached to four atoms/groups of atoms. These can be arranged diff. in space, which will have mirror images of each other.)
  8. Functional Group
    • Chemical group that affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions.
    • (7 chemical groups most imp. in biological processes are the hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino,
    • sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl groups.
  9. Hydroxyl Group (Functional Group)
    • Structure: OH---- or HO-----, hydrogen bonded to an oxygen, in turn bonded to a Carbon skeleton of an organic molecule. (not confused with hydroxide ion, OH-)
    • Name of Compound: Alcohols
  10. Alcohol
    • Part of chemical group Hydroxyl. Specific names usually end in -ol.
    • EX: Ethanol : alcohol presented in alcohol beverages.
    • Functional Properties: polar as a result of electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom and can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugars.
  11. Carbonyl Group
    • Structure: carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond (leaving carbon to bond with 2 atoms).
    • Name of Compound: Ketones: if the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton. Aldehydes: if carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  12. Aldehyde
    • Carbonyl Group. Ex. Propanal. (carbonyl group is at the end of the skeleton)
    • Aldehydes and Ketones are structural isomers that may have different properties, as in the case for propanal and acetone.
    • 2 Groups are also found in sugars, 2 major sugars: aldoses (containing an aldehyde) and ketoses (containing a ketone).
  13. Ketone
    Carbonyl Group: Simplest Ketone is Acetone. (carbonyl group is in the middle of the carbon skeleton).
  14. Carboxyl Group (hydroxyl + carbonyl = carboxyl)
    • Oxygen is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl (---OH) group.
    • Name of Compound: Carboxylic Acid or organic acids.
  15. Carboxylic Acid (Carboxyl Group) (oxygen === Carbon ------OH)
    • Example: Acetic Acid: which gives vinegar its sour taste.
    • Functional Properties:
  16. Amino Group
    • ---NH2 consists of nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.
    • (AMINES)
  17. Amine
    Ex. Glycine: because it also has a carboxyl group (Pg. 64 and Pg. 65) Study Diagram.
  18. Sulfhydryl Group
  19. Thiol
  20. Phosphate Group
Card Set
BIology Ch. 4
Bio Exam 1