When did Canada truly become independent from Britain?
1931, Canada becomes independent due to the Statute of Westminster. Wives of soldiers overseas were the first women to vote in Canada
What was the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry and what was the significance?
Canada and the United States wanted to expand their oil exploration in the Beaufort Sea because in the 1970s OPEC had imposed an embargo on Western countries because of Israel. this would have gone from Alaska across the Arctic coast to Yukon but it didn't go through. This inquiry cause the federal government to inquire about First Nations around the pipeline. Member of the NDP Justice Thomas Berger to travel across northern Canada and because of this, southern Canadians were exposed in the substantial way to Aboriginal people in the north. This exposure brought him to recommend a 10-year moratorium in order to reach treaties. Pierre Trudeau accepted this and during the 10 years treaties were signed and the pipeline was left behind
this was a very important process because it changed Canadian attitudes about indigenous rights.
Who was Norval Morrisseau? What was his significance?
he was an Ojibwa painter whose art was rapidly purchased by Canadians and people beyond Canada. He was one of the first modern Indigenous artist to gain a great following. It was one of the first to sign his work. the stern attitude around about Aboriginal art
Who built the Brass Canoe and helped to bring more awareness of Aboriginal culture?
Bill Reid. He brought haida art into the mainstream
Describe the two important sections of the Constitution Act 1982 with regards to Aboriginal people
Section 25: protects Aboriginal treaties
Section 35, recognizes and affirms the rights of Aboriginal people. Constitutionalizes the treaties
The Royal Proclamation was confirmed and all future treaties would be protected
It consolidated the past and gave promise for the future
Describe the sparrow case and its significance
Musqueam chief Ronald sparrow had been fishing in the Fraser River and was charged with not complying with regulations under the Fisheries Act. He argued that he had an Aboriginal right to fish and in the Supreme Court, he was able to defend his case by using section 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act 1982
This case was significant because it drew on the strength of the Constitution Act 1982
What was the Nisga'a agreement and what was significant about it?
- this was the first modern treaty NBC after the sparrow case force the government of BC to finally recognize that Aboriginal people had Aboriginal rights. in the late 1980s bill vendors AM made it official that BC would negotiate and the treaty was passed in May 2000.
- many thought that this treaty would break the log jam but it still has been over 20 years and not much has changed.
- the treaty did set up a new Sky Court system 4 cases on their land. They have a lot of control over their resources and are able to govern and tax themselves. there were no more white Indian agents governing them. This was a milestone
Explain the Delgamuk'w case and it's significance
The two FNs on the Skeena, the Giksan abs the Wetsuweten had never relinquish the claim to their land and they took the case to the BC courts who ruled against them. Then they went to the Supreme Court of Canada and the court recognized that the claims to the land continue to exist.
this was significant because the case was finally made the first nations had an Aboriginal right that had never been extinguished
What is the BC treaty Commission and when was it established?
The BC treaty Commission was established in 1992 and is a body that organizes the framework in which the negotiations can happen. Within that framework there have been treaties outside of the Nisga'a including the Tsawassan treaty.
Why has the treaty process being so slow? 3 points
- 1. Government doesn't want to give up claims?
- 2. backlash from the voters
- 3. Private property is not subject to treaty negotiations
Why is signing treaties with First Nations so important at this present time? (4)
1.It is important because there are serious economic implications. LNG for example.
2. there are issues involved and Canadians have a concept for the respect for rule of law and so we need to respect our previous agreements
3. it is about with dignity and respect we afford our fellow human beings
4. Canadians would like to claim that we are peacekeeping country
What is the negative aspect about treating negotiations today?
They take a lot of time, money and talent
What was the attitude in BC in the late 19th century concerning immigration?
the BC government wanted to encourage immigration from Britain and Scandinavia because they made good immigrants. People from the Mediterranean were seen as less desirable. The governments of that time expressed these discriminations.
There was a concerted effort to create a British society.
What was distinctive about Sir James Douglas concerning immigration?
Sir James Douglas and his wife were very multicultural. He was born in Guyana and his wife was Métis
When did the first Chinese people come to British Columbia? (4)
- 1. The first Chinese were known to be in BC on a British ship in the late 18th century.
- 2. 40 Chinese workers came and built buildings near Tofino.
- 3. In 1858 there was a permanent Chinese settlement
- 4. Ithe Cariboo gold rush through in a lot of gold miners from across the Pacific and many more came up from the United States
What were 5 ways in which the Chinese were discriminated against in early BC history?
- 1. In order to complete the CPR, Chinese were brought in as laborers. Hundreds of Chinese worked in horrible conditions and many died. they were mostly men and as the railway was almost complete the government wanted to find a way to get rid of them. they were poor uneducated so many went into the service sector including in restaurants in Laundry
- 2. In 1884, the right to vote was taken away from the Chinese. It had to be white men with property and up until then a Chinese man with property could possibly have voted.
- 3. In 1885 the first head tax was implemented at $50. This was to prevent more Chinese from coming. In 1900 they raised it to $100. In 1902 they raised it to $500 which was small fortune
- 4. In 1923 the Asian Exclusion Act prevented Chinese from coming to British Columbia at all
- 5. There was also legislation that prevented intermarriage between Chinese and white people
What was different about Chinese immigration and Indian immigration in early BC history?
BC couldn't oppose immigration because India was a part of the British Empire, but there was much reluctant
When did Indians start coming to British Columbia?
1890s they started to migrate slowly in small numbers
How did the Canadian government try to prevent Indians from coming to Canada?
Continuous passage law: this go around the British laws. A person had to come on a ship and directly from India to Canada not stopping in Singapore or any other ports. This was virtually impossible so it made it very difficult for Indians to migrate to Canada.
What is the name of the famous ship from India and what happened?
The Komagata Maru was a Japanese ship chartered by Gudrat Singh in 1914. He filled it with people who wanted to emigrate from India to Canada and it showed up with three hundred and seventy six migrants. The BCS thorities didn't want it to land and they were told they couldn't enter Canada so they had to go back to India. It is still significant in BC politics and is a monument on Hastings to commemorate this event
How did Japan change in the late 19th century? 3 points. . How does this change play a role in Japanese immigration to British Columbia?
- 1. Japan had made a decision not to interact with the West, except for a small Dutch trading post at Hiroshima.
- in 1868, the Americans decided that it was time for Japan to open its markets so they sent a gun boat to Japan and forced them to open their markets
- 2. Japan decided that since they had to open their markets they would send out teams of people across the world to learn the best ways of modernizing
- 3. In 1904 they had modernize their Navy based on the British model and dealt the Russians a surprise defeat . since the British found the costs and pressures of empire to be heavy, they agreed to have the Japanese Navy patrol the Pacific Ocean.
so Japanese people had an advantage for immigrating to Canada because of this agreement with the British
What was a major tension between Japanese and European people in early British Columbia?
The Japanese we're fishermen around the Fraser river and Steveston but we're not part of a union, so when the white fishermen went on strike people bought from the Japanese fisherman. So this created animosity. this animosity boiled over in World War 2 after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
What was the largest active discrimination against Japanese Canadians? explain
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor people felt that the Japanese allegiance was to Japan, and so pressure was put on the Canadian government to remove the Japanese from the coast of British Columbia. The initial response was that there was no threat, but then they rounded up all the Japanese Canadians and put them in internment camps. they were allowed to come back until 1951 and all their property was taken away from them. David Suzuki grew up in an internment camp
What are three ways in which Chinese Canadians, and to a lesser extent Indian Canadians, became full partners in BC society?
- 1. Internal initiatives: early in the 20th century there were various organizations in Chinatown called benevolent societies. The offered each other social support and interacted with the Canadian and BC governments similar to a lobby group in order to get the government to include them.
- 2. Chinese Canadian men volunteered to enlist in World War 2 to prove their loyalty to Canada. One of the rules was them to spy for the Allies in the Pacific putting themselves at great risk.
- 3. External support: the CCF was an active supporter of extending citizenship and many church groups also supported them.
What is acculturation and why is it significant in BC history?
acculturation is when to cultural groups come together and there is sharing of cultural ideas between them. this was important as Asians and European Canadians became accustomed to each other and helped to establish a multicultural attitude in BC
What events led to a more multicultural and accepting Society in British Columbia? (3)
- 1. Acculturation, Asian and European Canadians begin to share ideas and culture and they became accustomed to each other
- 2. Experience of war: with the shock of the Holocaust and ethnic nationalism in Europe, Canadians became active participants in the establishment of human rights in the United Nations and this changed Canada significantly. they begin to see their own racism and prejudice and more clearly.
- 3. With the dismantling of European empires during the 30 years after World War 2 Canadians saw a moral responsibility to assist these new countries in developing
When was the Citizenship Act passed and what was significant?
the first Citizenship Act was passed in 1946 and 47, and Chinese and Indians were given citizenship as Canadians.
Until when was immigration racist in Canada and what changed?
immigration continued to be racist until the 1960s an opportunity for Chinese to immigrate to Canada was very limited as only relatives could come. In the 19 sixties immigration was changed to a point system where immigrants were accepted for their abilities and not based on their race. example. Language skills, ability to find a job excetra
It wasn't until the 1970s that the racist elements were eliminated completely
What happened in the 1960s and 70s that helps to cement multiculturalism in BC and Canada? (3 points)
1. In the 1960s Quebec nationalism was dramatically increasing with the quiet revolution, and Lester B Pearson introduced the Royal Commission on bilingualism and biculturalism to find out where in the country French and English were spoken. As it traveled across the country many people came forward and said they were neither French nor English and the concept of multiculturalism had caught on in the public discussion.
2. In 1971, Pierre Trudeau adopted the multiculturalism policy. He said that there are two official languages but no official cultures. With that Canadians began to see themselves completely differently.
3. The 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms entrenched the idea of multiculturalism in the Constitution
What is the term environmentalism so difficult to define? (2)
1. Because it has multiple meanings. It goes from public health issues such as levels of smog and air pollutants to aesthetic issues including protecting heritage buildings and streets scapes.
2. Different people and organizations will promote different aspects. The tourist industry likes to promote the retention of forests but when we take the ideas of environmentalism apart what are we left with?
What is significant about the year 2008?
2008 is the first time in history where more than 50% of human beings live in cities
What are the main events that led to environmentalism today? 2 points.
- 1. In the late 19th century, the national parks movement in the United States came from hikers movements and the Sierra Club was started in the 1870s. They wanted to protect certain pieces of land because they had traumatic sceneries but not for ecological value at first
- 2. Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring in 1962. It was concerned about the use of pesticides on bird life. DDT was destroying the shells of eggs so the babies would not survive. she was severely criticized by the industry but she was right and eventually DDT was banned. Many people see her publication as the beginning of the environmental movement
what are three environmental organizations that started in Vancouver?
- 1. Greenpeace started in Vancouver in 1970
- 2. The sea Shepards
- 3. SPEC was a society promoting environmental conservation
What was the big significant reason for a shift towards environmentalism in the 19 sixties and seventies?
- 1. The rise of post materialism: people who grew up in secure circumstances had more abstract political ideas. After world war 2 with the baby boom people lived in economic growth and security.
- 2. Communications advancement in the 1960s also contributed to environmentalism as ideas spread more easily
- 3. Increase of higher education in the 1960s played a tremendous role as we have the knowledge to understand complex scientific information
When did the Green Party start in BC? What is their position today?
The Green Party started in 1984 in BC and has had recent success in the BC legislators and the municipal elections in Vancouver . the strongest green politics seem to come from BC