What is the constructivist view on regionalism?
Regionalism emerges when states have a common identity
What are the two different views on regionalism?
Supranationalists argue that regional organizations help to build organizations that supersede state sovereignty
Intergovernmentallists believe that states like to keep their country's sovereignty
Why did states become part of a regional organisation?
Because they share the same interests and or identity
What is regionalisation? (2)
1. The growth of economic interdependence within a given geographic area.
2. It is a process of collaborating on economic interests.
NAFTA is an example of regionalization which deepens relations between Canada the United States and Mexico
Why did regionalism emerge? 3 points
1. The management of interdependence: violence in one part of the world can affect other parts of the world so it is in their interests to come together
2. The management of Independence ex. OAU was formed to hel African states to free themselves from colonial rule Organization of African Unity
3. The management of internationalization: how states can come together to respond to pressures of globalization
What are the two forms of regionalism?
1. Regional cooperation: this is limited to a few areas in which states work together to promote their mutual interests
- 2. Regional integration: this is a deeper level of cooperation involving the harmonization of state policies and institutionalization
- example the EU
Explain the hierarchy of regional trade agreements.? 4 steps
- 1. Free trade area: the removal of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade
- example: NAFTA
- 2. Customs union: the removal of tariffs plus a common set of policies on imports outside the union
- example MERCOSUR ( Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela )
- 3. Common market: customs union plus free movement of labor and capital
- example the Andean community ( Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador and Peru )
- 4. Economic union: common market plus adoption of common currency, harmonization of monetary, fiscal and social policy.
- Example, the European Union
Why is it a good idea for state to join regional organizations?
Because they have more leverage in the international economy as a group rather than as individual states
When was NAFTA created and for what purpose?
- NAFTA was created in 1994 as the successor to the canada-us Free Trade Agreement.
- It was created to eliminate tariffs between its members and to provide a means for dispute settlement
What is chapter 11 of NAFTA?
Investor / state arbitration. under chapter 11, multinational organizations can sue NAFTA member states if they don't follow the rules.
What have bean 3 major disputes under NAFTA?
- 1. Softwood lumber dispute
- 2. Mad cow disease in Alberta
- 3. In 2011, WTO ruled in favor of Canada against the US on COOL (country of origen labeling)
How has security played a part in NAFTA? And what are two agreements that have been signed to improve security?
Trade cannot take place in an atmosphere of insecurity
The 2001 terrorist attacks shutting down the borders of the United States and its economy interrupting trade with Canada and Mexico.
1. Canada and the United States signed a deal to expedite low risk shipments and travellers after this had happened.
2. The partnership of North America was signed to work on issues of security in 2004
What are 3 challenges that Canada faces due to NAFTA?
- 1. Canadian companies can no longer be protected
- 2. Canadian sovereignty is being marginalized as MNC's can sue Canada
- 3. Risk of industrial collapse due to lower labor cost in Mexico
What led to the rise of the European Union? (3)
- 1. Events of the Second World War provided the impetus for change in European relations
- 2. European Economic Cooperation led to political integration
- 3. They developed a common agricultural policy (C.A.P.)
What have been three advancements for the European Union in the 21st century?
- 1. The enlargement of the European Union membership to 28 States
- 2. An ambitious process of constitutionalization
- 3. An economic union - adoption of a common currency
What were the 6 original members of the European Union?
- and Italy
What are two current issues facing the European Union?
1. Europe wants to promote a common constitution for European states but countries like France have rejected this in the name of state sovereignty
2. Recent elections in Greece have created an anti- austerity movement causing problems for the European Union
What are the four institutions within the European Union?
- 1. European Parliament: elect representatives of EU citizens, along with having national parliaments. National parliaments have to synchronize their legislation with the European Union legislation
- 2. European Council: this is made up of the heads of state of the EU members
- 3. Court of Justice: can process cases brought by individual EU citizens
- 4. European Central Bank: sets the interest rates, controls the money supply of the euro
What is the role of the G8?
Provide a forum for the world's most industrialized countries to respond to the challenges of globalization and integration
Define epistemic community (2)
- 1. A group of scientists who work together across borders.
- 2. they have been able to limit government control over information
What was Jubilee 2000?
A group of NGOs that got together to pressure governments to do something about the sovereign debt crisis
How has non-state actors been able to influence state policy over the last several decades?
Through the increase of communication and global transportation
What are four global justice issues that have fueled the resistance to globalization and have led to protests at WTO, g8 and g20 meetings?
- 1. Growing inequality
- 2. Sovereign debt crisis
- 3. Environmental degradation
- 4. Human rights abuses