What is foreign policy? (2)
- (1) Foreign policy is the articulation of the national interests of states
- (2) and the means to pursue these interests in the international arena.
What are three characteristics of foreign policy?
- 1. It is about what states do and how they interact in the international arena
- 2. It connects domestic politics and international relations
- 3. It is about the pursuit of the national interest
How do realists, liberals, Marxists, and constructivists see national interests?
Realist: national interests are the pursuit of power and national security
liberal: pursuit of the rule of law through international coorporation
Marxist: national interest represent the interests of the economic and political elites, They acknowledge the existence of interest groups within states but it is about class struggle
constructivists: national interest is a normative understudy of states about what is good and appropriate
What are the two components of national interests?
1. Material factors - includes trade, investments, natural resources, control over strategic territory
2. Ideational factors: - includes the promotion of norms, ideas, and values to enhance state security and prosperity.
How are foreign policy goals linked with domestic policy? 3 points
- 1. Cross-border issues such as environmental problems affect domestic policy.
- 2. International trade affect domestic policy.
- 3. Political leaders need domestic support for their foreign policy goals
What shapes foreign policy strategies? 3 points
- 1. Shaped by the doctrine of states example Bush Doctrine
- 2. Shaped by ideas, values and beliefs systems
- 3. Shaped by national myths
What is a doctrine in foreign policy?
- Doctrine is the overarching ideas and practices of a state that shape foreign policy
- Example: Bush Doctrine, Reagan doctrine
Name 4 famous doctrines and what the stood for?
- 1. Bush Doctrine: preemptive strikes
- 2. Reagan doctrine the modernization of the US nuclear arsenal
- 3. Obama doctrine: the use of drones
- 4. Chrétien doctrine: promotion of human rights
What are the three resources used for shaping foreign policy?
- 1. Military resources
- 2. Economic resources
- 3. Diplomatic resources
Describe 4 foreign policy tools for influencing other states
- 1. sticks: the use of military threats and sanctions
- 2. Carrots: the use of incentives including foreign aid
- 3. Sermons: the use of moral suasion including statements and diplomatic notes
- 4. Soft power: the use of image and positive international behavior
What are four outside influences on foreign policy?
- 1. Role of media through CNN affect or CBC impact
- 2. Domestic interest groups
- 3. Celebrity diplomacy - the Hollywood ization of issues
- 4. Think tanks
Who formulates foreign policy?
- The executive branch and the bureaucratic agencies
- in Canada the PMO is regarded as the most important institution in the making of foreign policy.
What is global governance? (3)
- (1) Regulatory arrangements such as institutions and organizations
- (2) that result from diverse interactions on diverse issues
- (3) which involve States and non-state actors.
What is international law? (2)
1. Customary and Treaty law that facilitates relations between actors at the global stage.
2. It coordinates state policies in order to respond to common problems and to protect core values.
What is the UN Charter? (2)
- 1. The Constitution of the United Nations and a source of international law.
- 2. States are judged by whether they behave according to the UN Charter.
What was the basis for the establishment of the United Nations? (2 events)
- 1. The Atlantic Charter of 1941: defined the goals of the Allies after the war was over
- 2. Dumbarton Oaks conference: in 1944 formally established the United Nations
What was the key indicator that collective security within the League of Nations wasn't going to work?
When Mussolini attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in WWII and the League of Nations did nothing to stop it
How many members were in the Security Council initially and how many are there now?
There were originally 11 members now there are 5 permanent members and 10 non permanent members voted in every 5 years
What was the trusteeship Council?
An organ of the United Nations which was constructed to help states equip for independence in the international community. It folded when Palau became independent
What are the 6 orders/bodies of the United Nations?
- 1. Secretariat: headed by the UN Secretary General for administrative purposes.
- 2. General Assembly: Parliament of states
- 3. Security Council: for making decisions on international security
- 4. Economic and Social Council: the World Food Programme is one of many
- 5. Trusteeship Council: to aid states toward independence but it's no longer exist
- 6. International Court of Justice (ICJ): settles disputes between states. Promotes international justice
What are for examples of functions provided by the Economic and Social Council?
- 1. Crime prevention and criminal justice
- 2. Promotes the state of women
- 3. Regional Economic commissions for Africa, Latin America excetra
- 4. International Labour Organisation
What are three functions of the General Assembly?
- 1. It has powers to oversee the budget of the United Nations
- 2. It appoints non-permanent members to the Security Council
- 3. receives reports from other parts of the UN and makes recommendations in the form of General Assembly resolutions
What are four features and purposes of the United Nations generally speaking
- 1. It was established to preserve peace after the Second World War - collective security
- 2. It is meant to reflect the lessons learned from the League of Nations
- 3. It reflects both the demands of great power politics through the Security Council veto and that of universalism through the General Assembly
- 4. It also reflects tensions between the needs and interests of people and the interest of states
What are four important parts within the preamble of the UN Charter?
- 1. the protection of the human rights is at the center of the promotion of peace and security through democratic systems
- 2. Equality between states / nations
- 3. Promotes social progress
- 4. Calls for states to abide by the treaties that they sign
What are three developments the UN has undertaken since the end of the Cold War?
- 1. It has resisted the aggression between states. example: the Iraq invasion of Kuwait
- 2. It has attempted to resolve internal disputes and civil wars
- 3. It has focused on improving economic, social and political conditions within states
describe the two key strategies of the Security Council
1. Reactive strategies: methods used to react to a security situation including collective security, mediation, peacekeeping, peacemaking, diplomacy
- 2. Proactive strategies: creation of international law, disarmament, deterrence, preventive diplomacy.
- These are proactive strategies for preventing conflicts
What is preventive deployment?
When the UN deploys forces between states as it has done in Cyprus to prevent conflict.
example the establishment of buffer zones
What is article 51?
Part of chapter 7 in the UN Charter which provides the right of countries to engage in self defense against an armed attack
What is the uniting for peace resolution 377A?
A unique resolution in the General Assembly that allows it to promote the functions of the Security Council if the Security Council fails to do its job by using the veto the General Assembly can act on this issue bypassing a binding resolution.