1. adverse reactions
    Reactions to drugs that are more severe than side effects
  2. Active absorption
    Movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids; requires a carrier, such as an enzyme or protein, to move the drug against a concentration gradient.
  3. agonist
    Drugs that produce a response
  4. antagonists
    drugs that block a response
  5. bioavailability
    The percentage of an administered drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation
  6. creatinine clearance (CLcr)
    a diagnostic test that determines renal function
  7. disintegration
    the breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles
  8. dissolution
    The dissolving of the smaller particles of a tablet in the gastrointestinal fluid before absorption
  9. distribution
    the process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues
  10. duration of action
    The length of time a drug has a pharmacologic effect
  11. elimination
    excretion of a drug, mainly throught he kidneys (urine), Other routes of elimination include hepatic metabolism, bile, feces, lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk.
  12. excipients
    fillers and inert substances found in tablets
  13. first-pass effect
    the process in which a drug passes to the liver first, (reduces the amount of drug available)
  14. Free drugs
    drugs not bound to protein
  15. half-life (t1/2)
    the time it takes for one half of a drug concentration to be eliminated
  16. high therapeutic index
    drugs with a wide margin of safety and less danger of producing toxic effects
  17. ligand-binding domain
    The site on the receptor in which drugs bind
  18. loading dose
    A large initial dose of drug given when an immediate drug response is desired to achieve rapid minimum effective concentration in the plasma
  19. low therapeutic index
    drugs with a narrow margin of safety for which the drug effect should be closely monitored
  20. metabloism
    occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and liver; however, the liver is the primary site.
  21. nonselective drugs
    drugs that affect various receptors
  22. nonspecific drugs
    drugs that affect various sites
  23. onset of action
    that time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after a drug is administered
  24. Passive absorption
    movement of drug particles from the gastrointestinal tract to body fluids that occurs mostly by diffusion (movement from higher concentration to lower concentration)
  25. peak action
    occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration
  26. peak drug level
    the highest plasma concentration of drug specific time
  27. pharmaceutic phase
    the first phase of drug action
  28. pharacodynamics
    the study of drug concentration and its effects on the body
  29. pharmacogenetics
    the effect of a drug action that varies from a predicted drug response because of genetic factors or hereditary influence
  30. pharmacokinetics
    the process of drug movement to achieve drug action
  31. pinocytosis
    the process by which cells carry drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles
  32. placebo effect
    a psychologic benefit from a compound that may not have the chemical structure of a drug effect
  33. rate limiting
    the time it takes a drug to disintegrate and dissolve, becoming available for the body to absorb it
  34. receptor families
    four families, including (1) kinase-linked receptors, (2) ligand-gated ion channels, (3) G protein-coupled receptor systems, and (4) nuclear receptors
  35. side effects
    physiologic effects of drugs not related to desired drug effects. All drugs have side effects, and are either desirable or undesirable.side effects occur and are predictabke
  36. tachyphylaxis
    a rapid decrease in respone to a drug
  37. therapeutic index (TI)
    estimates the margin of safety of a drug through the use of a ration that measures the effective (therapeutic or concentration) dose (ED) in 50% of persons or aninmals (ED50) and the lethal dose (LD) in 50% of animals (LD50).
  38. Therapeutic range (therapeutic window)
    The range of drug concentration in plasma, which should be between the minimum effective concentration in the plasma for ovtaining a desired drug action and the minimum toxic concentration, or the toxic effect
  39. time-curve response
    evaluates three parameters of drug action:(1) the onset of drug action, (2) peak action, and (3) duration of action
  40. tolerance
    a decreased responsiveness over the course of drug therapy
  41. toxic effects
    the first adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose. Toxic effects can be identified by monitoring the plasm (serum) therapeutic range of the drug
  42. toxiciy
    the fist adverse symptoms that occur at a particular dose. toxicity can be identified by monitoring the plasma (serum) therapeutic range of the drug
  43. trough drug level
    the lowest plasma concentration of a drug, which measures the rate at which the drug is eliminated
  44. assessment
    the first phase of the nursing process. Data provided by the assessment form the basis on which care is planned, implemented, and evaluated. Data collection involves both subjective and objective infromation
  45. culturally sensitive
    an awareness of the culture implications for a client and/or the client's family
  46. evaluation
    the phase of the nursing process that addresses the effectiveness of health teaching about drug therapy and the attainment of goals
  47. goal setting
    expected outcomes for a clien, determined during the planning phase of the nursing process
  48. implementaion
    the phase of the nursing process that includes the nursing actions and interventions necessary to accomplish the established goals or expectied outcomes
  49. nursing diagnosis
    a clinical judgement about individual, family, or community responses to actual and potential health problems or life processes. a diagnosis made by a RN based on analysis of the assessment data
  50. planning
    the phase of the nursing process characterized by goal setting or expected outcomes; it also includes development of nursing interventtions that will be used to assist the client in meeting outcomes
  51. SR
    • SR-sustained or slow release
    • XL- extended length
    • CR-controlled release
    • CD-controlled doseage
    • DS-double strength
  52. Names of Drugs

    • Generic-short, simple (acetainphen, ibuprofen)
    • trade-proprietatry registration, patented and owned (motrin, tylenol)
    • chemical- molecular structure and chemistry (propionic acid) motrin
  53. Pharmacology
    the study of drugs. a drug is any substance or chemical that affects processes of an organism. thier is no ideal drug
  54. 5 drug rights
    • right client
    • right drug
    • right dose
    • right time
    • right route
  55. five plus rights
    • right documentation
    • right assessment
    • right to education
    • right evaluation
    • right to refuse
  56. Guidelines for corret medication administration
    • read physician's order carefully
    • verify the identiy of the patient (2 forms)
    • read the medication label carefully (3x)
    • verify dosage calculations (ml (cc) and mg volume vs. mass
    • implement andy special handling
    • know why the drug is being given
  57. Do lipid soluble drugs or water-soluble cross cell membranes better?
    what is the difference between the two?
    • Lipids
    • lipid soluble drugs cross cell membranes by dissolving in the lipid layer

    water soluble cross thru via pores and channels
  58. What is the Pharmaceutic Phase
    the first phase of drug action. Disintegration and dissolution
  59. the three phases of drug action
    • pharmaceuttic phase
    • pharmacokinetices-four processes- absorption, distribution, metabolism (or biotrasformation)
    • and excretion (or elimination)
    • pharmacodynamics
  60. Gastrointestinal pHs
    • Normal pH values
    • stomach:1-3
    • Duodenum:6
    • jejunum and ileum:7-8
    • pH in urine 4.5-8

    • pH of stomach has a significant effect on absorption
    • low pH will increase absorption of acidic drugs and can destroy potency of some drugs
  61. informed consent
    designed to protect the idividual clients choice,promote individual autonomy, protect clients and subjects from harm avoid harm and duress in the health care, incourage professionals to be thourgh and clear in communicating information, promote educated decision making among clients, and promote self determination of the client
  62. Enzyme inducer
    drug that causes liver to synthesize more enzymes -> increasing rate of biotransformation (metabolism) speeds it up
  63. misfeasance
    wrong drug or drug dose given to a client resulting in death
  64. nonfeasance
    the omitting of a drug, which results to the death of a client
  65. malfeasance
    giving the drug by the wrong route, resulting in the death of a client
  66. 1970 controlled substance act
    designed to remedy the escalating problems of drug abuse
  67. schedule I-V drugs
    • schedule I (C-I)-drugs with high abuse potential (no medical use)
    • schedule II- (C-II)drugs with high potential for drug abuse (accepted medical use can lead to strong physical and psychologic dependancy)
    • schedule III- (C-III)-medically accepted drugs. potential abuse is less that C-I/C-II may cause dependence
    • schedule IV (C-IV)- medically accepted drugs, may cause dependence
    • schedule V (C-V)- medically accepted drugs. very limited potential for dependence
  68. 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the 1938 Act
    tighteded controls on drug safety, especially experimental drugs, and required that adverse reaction and contraindications must be labeled and included in the literature
  69. 1938 food, drug, and cosmetic act
    established th FDA (food and drug administration) to monitor and regulate the manufacture and marketing of drugs. Only frugs considered safe by the FDA are approved for marketing
  70. USP-NF United States Pharacopeia National Formulary
    the current authoritative source for drug standards. revised every 5 years. Drugs that meet their high standards have the initials USP following their official name
  71. 2003 Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA)
    serves to provide financial assistance to seniors to purchase needed prescription medications
  72. 2003 Pediatric Research Equity act
    The FDA is authorized to require testing by drug manufacturers of drugs and biologic products for their safty and effectiveness in children
  73. VIPPS-Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice site
    reputable source approved to be non-conterfeit drugs must have the VIPPS seal
  74. Declaration of Helsinki
    Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects
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