NCE test cards

  1. Nathan Ackerman
    psychodynamic family counseling
  2. alloplastic
    subject tries to change environment
  3. Gordon Allport
    personality psychology--traits, common and individual
    Analysis of Variance; controls for one or more external variables (covariates)
  5. what are covariates?
    one or more external variables in an experment
  6. What is an augmented family?
    A family with one or more unrelated members, a family of choice
  7. Autoplastic
    A subject tries to change to fit her environment
  8. Eric Berne
    transactional analysis--TA
  9. What is transactional analysis?
    Developed by Eric Berne, extra-Freudian model focusing on how humans interact
  10. What is a cluster sample?
    A sample that is naturally grouped (i.e. by neighborhood, by income)
  11. What is concurrent validity?
    One meausre reliably predicts another, these occur at the same time, thus they are concurrent
  12. What is predictive validity?
    One measure predicts another, they are seperated by time. For example, college education and lifetime income
  13. Content Validity
    Does the measure measure what it cliams to?
  14. Face Validity
    Different from construct validity in that it means does it appear to those taking it that it is an accurate measure? It is superfical whereas construct is statistical.
  15. Hawthorne effect
    subjects behavior changes because they are being studied
  16. interquartile range
    25th to 75th percentile
  17. interval scales
    orders data with equal intervals. no zero, think temperature--60 degrees is not twice as cold as 30, every degree is equal to another
  18. independent variable (IV) threats
    refers specifically to whether an experimental treatment/condition makes a difference or not, and whether there is sufficient evidence to support the claim.
  19. confounding variables
    changes in the DV may be related to another IV external from the experiment (i.e. Cosby show sweat shirt)
  20. selection bias
    experimenter may have a bias in testing pool selection
  21. history threat
    specific events which occur between the first and second measurement effect the outcome of the results of the DV
  22. maturation threat
    Subjects change as the experiment continues, participants may improve their performance regardless of treatment.
  23. repeated testing threat
    test/retest is a threat to the DV
  24. instrument change (instrumentation)
    changes in the instrument, observers, or scorers which may produce changes in outcomes.
  25. regression toward the mean (statistical regression)
    Over time extreme scores are likely to get better on their own; selection of subjects on the basis of extreme scores or characteristics raises the likelihood of dramatic change
  26. mortality/differential attrition
    some subjects drop out and they may have been the most challenging and resistant to change
  27. selection/maturation
    the selection of comparison groups and maturation interacting which may lead to confounding outcomes, and erroneous interpretation that the treatment caused the effect.
  28. diffusion
    treatment effects spread from treatment group to the control group and threaten the outcome
  29. experimenter bias
    experimenter treats one group different subconsciously
  30. logos
    Jung--basic male, responds via animus
  31. nAch
    David McClelland high need for achievement, these people avoid low and high-risk behaviors
  32. median
    Middle value that separates the greater and lesser halves of a data set--like a median in the road, it splits down the middle
  33. mode
    score that appears most frequently in a data set or probability distribution,
  34. sociogram
    Moreno--identifies the leaders in a group
  35. MMPI
    personality test, made of 10 clinical scales
  36. operant conditioning
    Skinner--describes the effects of the consequences of a behavior on the future likelihood of that behavior occurring. There are four types of OC--negative re, positive re, punishment and extinction. Positive and negative strengthen behavior, punishment and extinction weaken it.
  37. negative reinforcement
    type of operant conditioning, behavior strengthened by stopping or avoiding a negative condition (you leave home early to avoid bad traffic)
  38. positive reinforcement
    type of operant conditioning; rewarding a desired behavior, catching someone doing something good
  39. punishment
    type of operant conditioning; penaliz
  40. ing a negative behavior after it occurs
  41. extinction
    type of operant conditioning; behavior is weakened or disappears as reinforcement is withdrawn.
  42. nominal order
    values are assigned a code in name only, no numeric value (i.e., males are 1, females are 0 or favorite colors)
  43. novelty effect
    subject improves due to excitement about a new method, not because of the method
  44. O’Hanlon
    brief family therapy
  45. ordinal
    The interval between ranks is not equal (i.e. 1st, 2nd, 3rd in a race or "satisfied" vs. "very satisfied")
  46. Frank Parsons
    father of vocational guidance in the late 19th century
  47. pearson r
    aka Pearson product-moment correlation; measure of a correlation's strength, the range is -1 to +1
  48. triadic model of cross-cultural counseling
    Pederson--counselor needs awareness of other cultures (need more info)
  49. percentile rank
    percentage of scores lower than that score
  50. PKU
    rare genetic disorder, effected by diets
  51. predictive validty
    predicts scores on some other measure (i.e., voc ability score predicts success at a job), measures are taken at different times
  52. concurrent validity
    a test compares well with another validated test or instrument--measures are taken at the same time
  53. two types of validity
    concurrent and predictive
  54. What is Process Research?
    Applied research with a new or improved process
  55. What is a ratio?
    The relationship in degree or number between two similar things
  56. Define ratio scales
    Ratio scales have the values of nominal, ordinal and interval. They also have a true zero point. Money is a great example.
  57. Describe the Roe Occupational Model
    Persons are drawn to "people-oriented" careers because of early experiences of being raised in a warm, loving, nurturing family (Roe, 1957; Roe & Siegelman, 1964). Conversely, individuals who are drawn to careers in the hard sciences tend to come from an emotionally colder home environment.
  58. What is RIASEC?
    Holland's six personality types--Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional. This is also the acronym for six work environments
  59. Schlossberg
    4S retirement model; identifies an individuals coping ability. Situation, self, support, strategies
  60. How do you calculate SD?
    calculate mean, subtract mean from each score, square each score, sum squares, Divide that number by one less the data set, square that.
  61. sociograms
    graphic pictures of a relationship
  62. what are isolates?
    unconnected parts of a social network (sociogram)
  63. What is the Solomon 4 Group Design?
    Subjects are randomly assigned to four different groups: exp. with both pre/post, exp. w/o pretest, control with pre/post, and control without pretests. By using experimental and control groups with and without pretests, both the main effects of testing and the interaction of testing and the treatment are controlled. Generalizability increases and the effect of treatment (X) is replicated in four different ways.
  64. What is the Spearman R?
    A measure of dependence between two variables; can be -, + or zero
  65. Harry Stack Sullivan?
    Theorized observable psychoanalytic theory as opposed to Freud's UC. Foundation of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis
  66. What is a parataxic distortion?
    Per Stack Sullivan; interuption in the "I-You" relationship, similar to transferance
  67. stanine
    devides the curve into 9 parts, not equal
  68. Describe Super's Developmental Self-Concept theory
    Five stages; growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, decline
  69. What is the Thurstone Scale?
    formal technique for measuring attitudes
  70. What is a standard deviation?
    SD shows how much variation a score has from the mean
  71. What are Z-Scores?
    Z-Scores (aka the "standard score") show the probability of a score occurring in a normal distribution (only used if one knows the population parameters).
  72. What are t-scores?
    T-scores (aka student's t-test) are used if one does not know a population's parameters; it shows the probability of a score occurring in a population.
  73. What are the measures of central tendency?
    mean, median and mode
  74. What are stanines?
    Stanines (STANdard NINE) is a nine point scale with a mean of five and an SD of two. Mainly used in educational assessments, it converts all scores into a fixed scale.
  75. What are cumulative percentages?
    Cummulative percentages convert raw scores into a rank in a normal distribution
  76. What are percentile equivalents?
    A range of scores from 10 to 90 per cent (need more)
  77. What are deviation IQs?
    Deviation IQ Scores (aka Wechsler IQ scores), are a standard score with a mean of 100 and an SD of 15.
  78. How many people have IQs between 85 and 115?
    Two-thirds (68.26%) of the population would have deviation IQ's between 85 and 115
  79. How many people have IQs between 55 and 145?
    99.72% of the distribution would lie within three standard deviations of the mean (that is IQs between 55 and 145).
  80. What is the order for the normal curve sheet?

    • SD ZT
    • S(tanines), C(um percentages) P(ercentile =), D(ev IQs)
  81. Name Piaget's four stages
    sensormotor, pre-operatinal, concrete, formal
  82. Describe sensormotor operations
    infancy, child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement
  83. describe the pre-operational stage
    speaking to age 7, child begins to use symbols to represent objects. Early in this stage he also personifies objects. Better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. Oriented to the present, the child has difficulty conceptualizing time
  84. Describe the concrete operations stage
    1st grade to early adolesence, accommodation increases. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgements about concrete or observable phenomena
  85. Describe formal operations
    adolesence, takes cognition to its final form, no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements; capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning
  86. Describe conduct disorder
    Persistent violations of others' rights and rules, aggression towardothers, lying, stealing, and harm toward animals
  87. What are personality disorders?
    a group of psychiatric conditions in which chronicbehavior patterns cause serious problems with relationships and work
  88. What is catalepsy?
    Waxy flexibility, in terms of schizophrenia symptoms
  89. What is pragmatic speech?
    say inappropriate or unrelated things during conversations, little variety in speech
  90. what is a morpheme?
    smallest linguistic unit
  91. What is telegraphic speech?
    the two-word stage of language acquisition in children
  92. What is a phoneme?
    smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful words
  93. BAF
    Beta Accepts a False Null
  94. ART
    Alpha Rejects True Null
  95. What is a skewed distribution?
    A skewed distribution is one where high or low scores move the mean away from normal. Central tendency is altered and the tail tells the tale if it is positive or negative.
  96. What is NLP?
    Neurolingistic Programming, per Bandler, based on communication. Questionable and unproven.
  97. Mirroring and modeling in NLP?
    two techniques of subconscious modeling
  98. What is a bar graph?
    Graphs using bars to show number of items or responses, USED for categories (favorite color for example)
  99. What is a frequency polygon?
    classical graph, using dots to show the shape of a distribution
  100. what is a histogram?
    representation of a frequency distribution by means of rectangles, diff from a bar graph in that it measures amounts (like weight)
  101. What is the independent variable?
    The predictor variable
  102. Descriptive research vs. Experimental?
    Descriptive uses data points to explain a moment; experimental uses pre and post tests to suggest a correlational change
  103. What is causal research?
    Attempts to explain the impact of one thing on another--education on income, 9/11 on cancer
  104. What is a scatter plot?
    Scatter plots determine what happens to one variable when another variable changes value.
  105. Cybernetics is the study of
    circular causality in family therapy
  106. Triangulation
    per Minuchin, involves a pair of family members incorporating or rejecting a third family member.
  107. Minuchin's school of family therapy?
  108. Detouring
    a type of triangle per Minuchin
  109. cross-generational coalitions
    type of triangle per Minuchin
  110. Diffuse boundary
    A type of boundary typified by family members feeling unable to act as autonomous individuals
  111. What are rigid boundaries?
    A type of boundary typified by family members not having feelings of loyalty toward the family
  112. Atkinson
    sociologist who suggested that the primary barrier to effective cross-cultural therapy might be the traditional counseling role
  113. Murray Bowen
    Bowen-Intergenerational Theory; tension in the family system will be resolved by the presence of a neutral third person
  114. Minuchin
    structural; systems approach that views the family as an organism undergoing transformation. Therapist's role is an active, interventive one in which he/she challenges the existant "family reality."
  115. Haley and Madanes
    Working with the family to define a problem, and then helping the family relate to and solve that problem. Similar to Structural Family Therapy, the therapist is active and interventive.
  116. Milan/Milanese Approach
    Mara Selvini-Palazolli Systemic Family Therapy utilizes a team interview with two members of the team conducting the interview while other member, of the team observe from behind a two-way mirror.
  117. Satir and Whitaker
    communication in the family, and they both emphasize the importance of the experiential part of treatment.
  118. Narrative Family Therapy
    Emphasizes the construction of meaning as a central theme of therapy. It highlights the influence of language and social context in understanding a problem
  119. Narrative Psychology
    Humans deal with experience by constructing stories and listening to the stories of others; human activity and experience are filled with "meaning" and that stories, rather than logical arguments or lawful formulations, are the vehicle by which that meaning is communicated.
  120. Bruner
    lead theorist in narrative therapy
  121. Ginzberg
    career choice is a developmental process.
  122. Super
    career dev is a life long process
  123. Super's theory is
    there are six life and career development stages, most comprehensive of developmental theories, emphasizes self-concept, and uses a life-stage model for career transition
  124. Super's six stages
    • 1. The crystallization stage, ages 14-18
    • 2. Specification stage, ages 18-21
    • 3. Implementation stage, ages 21-24
    • 4. Stabilization stage, ages 24-35
    • 5. Consolidation, age 35
    • 6. Readiness for retirement, age 55
  125. Crites
    Successful completion of developmental tasks through vocational life stages is career maturity
  126. John Crites
    leading career theorists, went to TC, saw voc psych and career dev as seperate, "career maturity"
  127. Vocational Maturity
    coined by Super
  128. Pete and Harren
    Describe decision problems as "elements"; 1. choices, 2. outcomes, 3. objectives
  129. Tideman
    car dev; central concept is self-development;
  130. National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA).
    most influential in advancing career conseling
  131. Roe
    first theorist to categorize occupations into two groups, person-oriented and non-person-oriented, to classify occupations into eight groups, and who felt that choice of occupation is influenced by parenting styles
  132. Crites cites three possible causes for indecision
    1. uninterested individual who is uncertain about a choice; 2. multi-potential individual and 3. undecided individual who cannot make a choice
  133. Sheehy
    career theorist, focuses on adult development
  134. DOT
    publication that lists over 20,000 occupations in ascending order with 9 digit codes
  135. Roe's three parental practices that effect career choice
    emotional concentration, acceptance, avoidance
  136. Ginzberg
    created career assessment that is developmental in focus; includes three periods in the career development process.
  137. John Henry Effect
    threat to int. validity; He was a worker who outperformed a machine under an experimental setting because he was aware that his performance was compared with the machine.
  138. Reactive/Interaction Effect
    Threat to ext. validity; pretest might increase or decrease a subject's sensitivity or responsiveness to the experimental variable.
  139. Interaction effects of selection biases and the experimental variable
    Threat to external validity
  140. Reactive effects of experimental arrangements
    threat to ext validity; difficult to generalize to non-experimental settings if the effect was attributable to the experimental arrangement of the research.
  141. Multiple treatment interference
    as multiple treatments are given to the same subjects, it is difficult to control for the effects of prior treatments.
  142. Simpson's Paradox
    care has to be taken when combining small data sets into a large one. Sometimes conclusions from the large data set are exactly the opposite of conclusion from the smaller sets.
  143. Secondary Analysis
    A research strategy uses previously collected data to answer a new research question
  144. What year were half of all women working outside the home for the first time in U.S. history?
  145. Turners syndrome
    Only in girls, missing x
  146. Downs Syndrome
    21st chrmosone
  147. Classical Conditioning
    Pavlovian; involuntary, or automatic, response to a stimulus
  148. Operant Conditioning
    Skinner (aka response-stimulus or RS conditioning); how an animal learns to survive in its environment through reinforcement (consequences). This is learning in which behaviors are altered by the consequences that follow them
  149. Summative scale used to gather information for scales of measurement
    Likert Scale
  150. life-space theory
    elationships between people are represented by qualitative geometric factors
  151. Hs?
  152. D?
  153. Hy?
  154. Pd?
    Psychopathic Deviate
  155. M/F?
  156. Pa
  157. Pt
  158. Sc
  159. Ma
  160. Si
    Social Introversion
  161. What is hypomania?
    A mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state; highly egotistic, energetic, and irritable
  162. content-oriented consultation?
    A type of consultation in which the consultant is considered an expert and assumes the role of problem-solver
  163. process-oriented consultation?
    Consultant constructs activities that help the client better understand events that occur in her environment
  164. What are the two types of consultation?
    process and content-oriented
  165. what is implosive therapy?
    behavior therapy involving intensive recollection and review of anxiety-producing situations or events in a patient's life
  166. For a person-centered group, what is the critical determining factor in the outcome of the group?
    he leader's relationship with the members of the group.
  167. Gestalt family therapy?
    Kempler; focuses on "now", release of feelings, interpersonal awareness, and integration of family members' acceptance of each other's being
  168. Thorne's counseling theory?
    Brief as opposed to extensive, lengthy methods.
  169. Per Bowlby, infants go through three stages of reaction during prolonged separation from the caregiver
    protest, despair, resolution
  170. Schlossberg's four major factors to transition?
    Situation, Self, Support, and Strategies; in all four assets and liabilities are weighed
  171. One of Schlossberg's main propositions is that the greatest differences from adult to adult are in
  172. What were T-groups first called?
  173. What is the purpose of T-Groups?
    learners use here and now experience in the group, feedback among participants and theory on human behavior to explore group process and gain insights into themselves and others
  174. National Training Laboratories Institute
    Where T-Groups were first formed
  175. What is leptokurtic?
    A distribution with a high peak
  176. What is a kurtosis?
    the sharpness of the peak of a distribution
  177. What is platykurtic?
    having less kurtosis than the normal distribution.
  178. What is mesokurtic?
    having the same kurtosis as the normal distribution
  179. Barbara Okun's developmental theory centers around three life cycles and three life stages, what are the cycles?
    individual, family, career.
  180. What is the central motivating factor of behavior in interpersonal theory?
  181. Interpersonal theory deals with people's characteristic interaction patterns, which are....
    the dimensions of dominance and friendliness.
  182. This five-factor personality model is comprised of five personality dimensions
    (OCEAN): Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism
  183. PEN model is comprised of three personality dimensions based on psychophysiology:
    Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism.
  184. What is a trait?
    It is temporally stable, cross-situational individual difference.
  185. What is psychasthenia?
    psychological disorder characterized by phobias, obsessions, compulsions, or excessive anxiety
  186. Symptoms: indifferent to other people, aloof, and a loner
    schizoid disorder
  187. What is role conflict?
    special form of social conflict that takes place when one is forced to take on two different and incompatible roles at the same time.
  188. Work patterns of the 90s are outlined by nine paradoxes according to...
  189. What is a vocation?
    a strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation
  190. What is a career?
    an occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person's life and with opportunities for progress.
  191. Stuart's behavioral marital therapy makes use of a precounseling inventory that includes
    pleasure index, contracts and caring days
  192. Frank Parsons developed a three-part formula
    matching traits to occupational factors, knowledge of factors required by occupations, on the job experience.
  193. Gate Keeper's role in a group?
    allows others talk time.
  194. The therapist acts like one of the family and participates in family interactions in
    Structural Family Therapy
  195. New born's health measured by
    the Apgar score with 10 being high.
  196. Learning Disability refers to problems in
    language, communication, and/or reading.
  197. What is action research?
    Action research is inquiry or research in the context of focused efforts to improve the quality of an organization and its performance
  198. What is FERPA?
    educational records of their children, and no information about their children be released in student directories
  199. BASIC ID stands for seven factors or modalities that in combination make up the basic personality
    1. Behaviors.2. Affective responses.3. Sensory reactions. 4. Images.5. Cognitions. 6. Interpersonal relationships. 7. Drugs and other biological interventions.
  200. SD of Stanford Binet?
  201. Gelatt's Career Model?
    Positive Uncertainty
  202. Hareve?
    Family, Implications of social change
  203. Kohlberg's 3 Main Stages of Moral Development?
    Pre-Conventional, Conventional, Post-Conventional
  204. What are Kohlberg's Pre-Conventional levels?
    • 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (How can I avoid punishment?)
    • 2. Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?)
  205. What are Kohlberg's Conventional levels?
    • 3. Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social--good boy/good girl attitude)
    • 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)
  206. What are Kohlberg's Post-Conventional levels?
    • 5. Social contract orientation
    • 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)
  207. Hs?
    Hypochondriasis, refers to an excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness. Often, hypochondria persists
  208. Pd?
    a person who behaves impulsively without being bound by typical social rules
  209. Hy?
    Hysteria, panic, fear
  210. Pd
    Psychopathic Deviate, think Dexter, charming on the outside, hollow in
  211. Pa
    Paranoia, thought process heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion.
  212. Pt?
    Psychasthenia, akin to obsessive-compulsive disorder, and as characterised by excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions, and unreasonable fears.
  213. Sc?
    Schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarredelusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction
  214. Ma?
    Hypomania, persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state, "up" part of bi-polar
  215. Si?
    Social Introversion, reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable
  216. What is a ratio IQ score?
    divides mental age by chronological age and multiplies it by 100.
  217. Axis I?
    clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders
  218. Axis 2?
    underlying pervasive or personality conditions, as well as mental retardation, and developmental disorders
  219. Axis 3?
    acute medical conditions and physical disorders
  220. Axis 4?
    psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
  221. Axis 5?
    GAF, Global Ass. of Functioning, numeric scale (0 through 100)
  222. Volunteerism tends to peak in
    middle adulthood
  223. National Defense Education Act
    impacted counselor training at universities
  224. vocational counseling is mainly
    a therapeutic process
  225. Who emphasized the process of supervision as actually a modified form of therapy?
  226. Dreams in Gestalt?
    Members are asked to discover the meaning the dream has for them.
  227. randomized or true experiment involves
    random assignment
  228. a control group or multiple measures equals
    a quasi-experiment or a non-experiment
  229. Q-Sort
    2 lists compare self with ideal self
  230. basal rate
    the level at which the test taker passes all items.
  231. Roesenthal Effect
    manner in which one's beliefs, biases and expectations can have an influence on an investigation
  232. Kubler-Ross' stages
    denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
  233. Emic
    comes from a person within the culture
  234. EPPS
    personality inventory that consists of 210 paired statements with forced choice answers
  235. nurturing child and adapted child.
    Gestalt, talking between two chairs
  236. beneficence
    not taking advantage of or harming others.
  237. accomidation
    • from Structural Family Therapy; therapist adjusts and modifies one's role during a clinical session to feeback
    • received from the family system in order to achieve joining.
  238. analogic
    A form of communication which consists of quantities and differences.
  239. battle for initiative
    Symbolic-experiential Family Therapy, to get the family to take responsibility for what happens in the therapy process
  240. Battle for Structure
    Symbolic-experiential Family Therapy, to establish the necessary ground rules or structure for therapy with a family
  241. Super's Life Stages
    "maxicycles": Growth (4-to13); Exploration (14-to-24); Establishment (25-to-44); Maintenance (45-65); and Disengagement (65 and over).
  242. SII?
    Strong Interest Inventory (SII) serves as an interest register for high school/college
  243. trait-factor?
    career; early 1900’s and is associated mostly strongly with vocational theorists Frank Parsons and E.G. Williamson.
  244. Thorndike
    IQ, abstract intelligence
  245. Reality Therapy
    Glasser, focuses on the here-and-now & how to create a better future. Clients seek to discover what they really want and whether what they are currently doing is actually bringing them nearer to, or further away from, that goal.
  246. Reliability
    Reliability - Test consistency or accuracy, minimizes error and provides repeatable consistent results.
  247. Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing
    Group, Tuckman
  248. Carkhuff & Egan
    Process Research
  249. NOIR
    Nominal, Ordianal, Interval, Ratio
  250. Orpahn Annie is a Pretty Little Girl
    Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital
  251. Which has true zero?
    Ratio Scale
  252. Mean = 0, SD = 1
    Z-score, z for zero
  253. Mean 50, SD 10
    T-Score (T for ten)
  254. Quick Calc of SD?
    determine range, divide by 6
  255. Calculate the variance?
    Square the SD
  256. Calculate the SD?
    Square the variance
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