what are food colors?
Compounds used to enhance appeal / acceptability of foods to consumers.
what are 2 categories of food colouring agents?
Natural and Synthetic (Certified)
what are synthetic compounds used for?
Synthetic compounds applied to color food, drugs, cosmetics, or human body parts.
what is the rationale for adding food colorants?
- To make up for color losses following exposure to light, air, moisture and variations in temperature;
- To enhance naturally occurring colors;
- To add color to foods that would otherwise be colorless or colored differently.
how are Synthetic (certified) food colors made?
By chemical synthesis
how are Natural (uncertified) food colors made?
From plants, animal, microbial and mineral
what are some examples of synthetic food colorants?
- FD&C Blue No. 1
- FD&C Blue No. 2 (a.k.a., Indigotine)
- FD&C Green No. 3
- FD&C Red No. 40 (a.k.a., Allura Red)
- FD&C Red No. 3 (a.k.a., Erythrosine)
- FD&C Yellow No. 5 (a.k.a., Tartrazine)
- FD&C Yellow No. 6 (a.k.a., Sunset Yellow)
- *Orange B
- *Citrus Red
- ** limited use only
what are some examples of natural food colorants?
what are 2 forms of certified food colors?
Dyes and Lakes
what are dyes?
- Water soluble salts of Na+
- Sold as powders, granules, liquids
- Dyes are manufactured as powders, granules, or liquids.
- They can be used in beverages, dry mixes, baked goods, confections, dairy products, pet foods, and a variety of other products.
- Relatively larger amounts of dyes consumed versus lakes.
what are lakes?
- Water insoluble,
- Marketed as pastes & dispersions
- Lakes are Al or Ca salts of dyes;
- Ideal for coloring fatty / oily food products.
- Lakes are made by combining dyes with salts (Ca2+ & Al3+) to make insoluble compounds.
- Lakes color foods by dispersion.
- Lakes are not oil soluble, but are oil dispersible.
- Lakes are more stable than dyes and are ideal for coloring products containing fats and oils or items lacking sufficient moisture to dissolve dyes.
- Typical uses include coated tablets, cake and doughnut mixes, hard candies and chewing gums, lipsticks, soaps, shampoos, etc.
what are the advantages and disadvantages of dyes and lakes?***
what are some food colorant applications?
- Candies & Confectioneries
- Dairy Products (e.g., cheese, yoghurt)
- Food Spreads (e.g., butter, margarine, jams & jellies)
- Snack foods
what are the criteria choice of dyes?
- Composition of formulation
- Processing conditions
- Shelf-life requirements