Micro

  1. Penicillin was considered a "miracle drug" for which of the following reaons?

    1. it was the first antibiotic
    2. it does not affect eukaryotic cells
    3. it has selective toxicity
    4. it kills bacteria
    5. all of the above
    5. all the above
  2. Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective (useful) against

    1. viruses
    2. bacteria
    3. fungi
    4. protozoa
    5. all of the answers are correct
    2. bacteria
  3. In what way are semisynthetic penicillins and natural penicillins alike?

    1. both are broad spectrum
    2. both are resistant to penicillin
    3. both are resistant to stomach acids
    4. both bactericidal
    5. both are based on B-Lactam
    5. Both are based on B-Lactam
  4. In table 20.1, the minimal bacterial concentration MBC of antibiotic X is?

    1. 2ug/ml
    2. 10ug/ml
    3. 15ug/ml
    4. 25ug/ml
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
    15ug/ml
  5. In table 20.1, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotic X?

    1. 2ug/ml
    2. 10ug/ml
    3. 15ug/ml
    4. 25ug/ml
    2. 10ug/ml
  6. More than half of our antibiotics are:

    1. produced by fungi
    2. produced by bacteria
    3. synthesized in laboratories
    4. produced by Fleming
    5. produced by eukaryotic organisms
    2. produced by bacteria
  7. To date, most of our natural antibiotics have been found to be produced by members of what genus?

    1. Streptomyces
    2. Bacillus
    3. Penicillium
    4. Paenibacillus
    5. Cephalosporium
    1. Streptomyces
  8. Which of the following is mismatched?

    1. Ehrlich - magic bullet theory
    2. Fleming - identifications of penicillin
    3. Florey and Chain - identification of Penicillium as the producer of penicillin
    4. Kirby and Bauer - disc-diffusion method
    5. None of these is mismatched
    C. Florey and Chain - identification of Penicillium as the producer of penicillin
  9. Which of the following antibiotics does NOT interfere with cell wall synthesis?

    1. cephalosporins
    2. macrolides
    3. natural penicillins
    4. semisynthetic penicillins
    5. vancomycin
    2. macrolides
  10. Which of the following organisms would MOST likely be sensitive to natural penicllin?

    1. helminths
    2. Steptococcus pyogenes
    3. Penicillinase - producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    4. Penicllium
    5. Mycoplasma
    2. Steptococcus syogenes
  11. Which of the following statements about drug resistance is FALSE?

    1. It may be carried on a plasmid
    2. It may be transferred from one bacterium to another during conjugation
    3. It may be due to enzymes that degrade some antibiotics
    4. it is found only in gram negative bacteria
    5. it may be due to increased uptake of a drug
    4. it is found only in gram negative bacteria
  12. In table 20.2, the most effective antibiotic tested was

    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. the answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
    4. D
  13. In table 20.2, which antibiotic would be most useful for treating a Salmonella infection?

    1. A
    2. B
    3. C 
    4. D
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
  14. In table 20.2, which antibiotic that exhibited bactericidal action was?

    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
  15. _____ occurs when the effect of two drugs together is greater than the effect of either

    1. Antibiotic resistance
    2. Synergism
    3. antifungal drugs
    4. antagonism
    5. minimal bactericidal concentration
    2. Synergism
  16. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

    1. At least one member not benefit in a symbiotic relationship
    2. members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live without each other
    3. a parasite is not in symbiosis with its host
    4. symbiosis refers to different organisms living together and must benefit from each other
    5. at least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship
    5. at least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship
  17. The major significance of Robert Koch's work is that

    1. microorganisms are present in a diseased animal.
    2. diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another.
    3. microorganisms can be cultured.
    4. microorganisms cause disease.
    5. microorganisms are the result of disease.
    4. microorganisms cause disease.
  18. Focal infections initially start out as

    1. sepsis.
    2. bacteremia.
    3. local infections.
    4. septicemia.
    5. systemic infections.
    3. local infections
  19. The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can directly attributed to

    1. increased use of antibiotics.
    2. improved handwashing.
    3. vaccinations.
    4. antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.
    5. None of the answers is correct.
    3. vaccinations.
  20. Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

    1. cause diseases.
    2. are found in a certain location on the host.
    3. are always acquired by direct contact.
    4. are present for a relatively short time.
    5. never cause disease.
    4. are present for a relatively short time.
  21. Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?

    1. They occur in compromised patients.
    2. They may be caused by opportunists.
    3. They may be caused by drug-resistant bacteria.
    4. They may be caused by normal microbiota.
    5. The patient was infected before hospitalization.
    5. The patient was infected before hospitalization
  22. Which of the following is a fomite?

    1. water
    2. droplets from a sneeze
    3. pus
    4. insects
    5. a hypodermic needle
    5. a hypodermic needle
  23. The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

    1. ecology.
    2. epidemiology.
    3. communicable disease.
    4. morbidity and mortality.
    5. public health.
    2. epidemiology
  24. A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as

    1. subacute.
    2. subclinical.
    3. latent.
    4. zoonotic.
    5. acute.
    3. latent
  25. A needlestick is an example of

    1. direct contact.
    2. droplet transmission.
    3. fomite.
    4. vector.
    5. vehicle transmission.
    3. fomite
  26. Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease?

    1. lifestyle
    2. genetic background
    3. climate
    4. occupation
    5. None of the answers are correct; all of these are predisposing factors of disease.
    5. None of the answers are correct; all of these are predisposing factors of disease.
  27. In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?

    1. prodromal
    2. decline
    3. convalescence
    4. incubation
    5. incubation and convalescence
    5. incubation and convalescence
  28. If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to

    1. incubation.
    2. illness.
    3. decline.
    4. convalescence.
    2. illness
  29. Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?

    1. a sick person
    2. soil
    3. a sick animal
    4. a hospital
    5. None of the answers are correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection
    5. None of the answers are correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection
  30. Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?

    1. cat-scratch disease
    2. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    3. rabies
    4. tapeworm
    5. None of the answers is correct; all of these are zoonoses.
    None of the answers is correct; all of these are zoonoses.
  31. The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the

    1. mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
    2. mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
    3. skin.
    4. parenteral route.
    5. All of these portals are used equally.
    1. mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
  32. The ability of some microbes, such as Trypanosoma or Giardia to alter their surface molecules and evade destruction by the host's antibodies is called

    1. antigenic variation.
    2. lysogenic conversion.
    3. virulence.
    4. cytopathic effect.
    5. cytocidal effect.
    1. Antigenic variation
  33. Most pathogens that gain access through the skin

    1. can penetrate intact skin.
    2. just infect the skin itself.
    3. enter through hair follicles and sweat ducts.
    4. must adhere first while their invasive factors allow them to penetrate.
    5. must be injected.
    3. enter through hair follicles and sweat ducts
  34. The ID50 is

    1. a measure of pathogenicity.
    2. the dose that will cause an infection in 50 percent of the test population.
    3. the dose that will kill some of the test population.
    4. the dose that will cause an infection in some of the test population.
    5. the dose that will kill 50 percent of the test population.
    2. the dose that will cause an infection in 50 percent of the test population.
  35. Which of the following is NOT a membrane-disrupting toxin?

    1. A-B toxin
    2. hemolysin
    3. leukocidin
    4. streptolysin O
    5. streptolysin S
    1. A-B toxin
  36. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

    1. Leukocidins destroy neutrophils.
    2. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells.
    3. Hyaluronidase breaks down substances between cells.
    4. Kinase destroys fibrin clots.
    5. Coagulase destroys blood clots.
    5. Coagulase destroys blood clots
  37. Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with the host's

    1. antibodies.
    2. red blood cells.
    3. iron-transport proteins.
    4. white blood cells.
    5. receptors.
    3. iron - transport proteins
  38. All of the following are examples of entry via the parenteral route EXCEPT

    1. injection.
    2. bite.
    3. surgery.
    4. hair follicle.
    5. skin cut.
    4. Hair follicle
  39. Superantigens produce intense immune responses by stimulating lymphocytes to produce

    1. endotoxins.
    2. exotoxins.
    3. cytokines.
    4. leukocidins.
    5. interferons.
    3.. cytokines
  40. Botulism is caused by ingestion of a proteinaceous exotoxin; therefore, it can easily be prevented by

    1. boiling food prior to consumption.
    2. administering antibiotics to patients.
    3. not eating canned food.
    4. preventing fecal contamination of food.
    5. filtering food.
    1. Boiling food prior to consumption
  41. All of the following organisms produce exotoxins EXCEPT

    1. Salmonella typhi.
    2. Clostridium botulinum.
    3. Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
    4. Clostridium tetani.
    5. Staphylococcus aureus.
    1. Salmonella typhi
  42. All of the following are used by bacteria to attach to host cells EXCEPT

    1. M protein
    2. Ligands
    3. Fimbriae
    4. Capsules
    5.Invasins
    5. Invasins
  43. Which of the following statements about M protein is FALSE?

    1. It is found on Streptococcus pyogenes.
    2. It is found on fimbriae.
    3. It is heat- and acid-resistant.
    4. It is readily digested by phagocytes.
    5. It is a protein.
    4. It is readily digested by phagocytes.
  44. Table 15.1 shows the ID50 for Staphyloccocus aureus in wounds with and without the administation of ampicillin before surgery. Based on the data, the administration of ampicillin before surgery

    1. Decrease the risk of staphyloccocal infection
    2. Increase the risk of staphyloccocal infection
    3. has no effect on risk of infection
    4. replaces tetracycline
    5. The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided
    1. Decrease the risk of staphyloccocal infection
  45. Which of the following mechanisms is used by gram-negative bacteria to cross the blood-brain barrier?

    1. producing fimbriae
    2. inducing endocytosis
    3. producing toxins
    4. inducing TNF
    5. antigenic variation
    4. inducing TNF
  46. What are Exotoxins?
    Proteins made inside bacteri and are gram + and are part of growth and metabolism. Later secreted into the medium during log phase. (Clostidium botulinum)
  47. What are endotoxins?
    Are LPS that are part of the outter membrane of the call wall of gram - bacteria.  Are liberated when the bacteria die and cell wall breaks apart. (salmonella typhimurmium.)
  48. What is the action of A-B toxins?
    • 1. Make a release toxin
    • 2. B components attach to host cell
    • 3. enters host cell
    • 4. A-B exotoxin enclosed in pinched-off portion of plasma membran during pinocytosis
    • 5. A-B toxins seperate. A changes cell function by inhibiting proteing synthesis. B is release from host cell
  49. Use of host nutrients?
    • 1. Iron is required for growth. is low because it is bounded well to other substances.
    • 2. To get iron, pathogens secrete proteins called siderophores
    • 3. As an alternative, some pathogens bind to iron transport proteins.
    • 4. Some bacteria make toxins when iron is low. This kills host cels, releasing their iron and giving it to bacteria.
Author
idk
ID
326119
Card Set
Micro
Description
Micro
Updated