Clinical Pathologies 3

  1. Typical heart attack pain
    "Crushing" substernal pain that does not disappear w/ rest
  2. Flail chest
    Multiple rib fractures resulting in paradoxical movement of the affected ribs

    Very painful breathing; ventilation / oxygenation is affected
  3. Thoracic outlet syndrome
    • Compression of superior thoracic aperture
    • Affects arteries and T1 nerve (going to UE / neck)
  4. Paralysis of the diaphragm
    Injury to the phrenic nerve causes ipsilateral paradoxical movement
  5. Thoracocentesis
    • 9th intercostal space MAL
    • Sample fluid in pleural cavity at the costodiaphragmatic recess
  6. What structures are crossed in a thoracocentesis?
    • External intercostal m.
    • Internal intercostal m.
    • Innermost intercostal m.
    • Endothoracic fascia
    • Parietal pleura
  7. What structures are crossed during an intercostal nerve block in MAL?
    What nerves are blocked?
    • External intercostal m.
    • Internal intercostal m.

    collateral and intercostal nn.
  8. Pneumothorax
    Entry of air into pleural cavity

    • fluid = hydrothorax
    • blood = hemothorax
  9. Pulmonary Embolism
    Obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a thrombus / fat glubule / air from leg vein causes decrease in oxygenation of blood

    large embolus = emergency (patient can die w/in minutes)
  10. What nerves could be injured during a radical mastectomy?
    What functions are lost?
    • Long thoracic nerve ()
    • Thoracodorsal nerve ()

    SLIDE 16
Card Set
Clinical Pathologies 3
Exam 3