PSYCH Chapter 1: The People and the Field

  1. Developmentalists
    Researchers and practitioners whose professional interest lies in the study of the human lifespan.
  2. Lifespan development
    The scientific field covering all of the human lifespan.
  3. Child development
    The scientific study of development from birth through adolescence.
  4. Gerontology
    The scientific study of the aging process and older adults.
  5. Adult development
    The scientific study of the adult part of life.
  6. Normative transitions
    Predictable life changes that occur during development.
  7. Non-normative transitions
    Unpredictable or atypical life changes that occur during development.
  8. Contexts of development
    Fundamental markers, including cohort, socioeconomic status, culture and gender, that shape how we develop throughout the lifespan.
  9. Cohort
    The age group with whom we travel through life.
  10. Baby boom cohort
    The huge age group born between 1946 and 1964.
  11. Emerging adulthood
    The phase of life that begins after high school, tapers off toward the late twenties, and is devoted to constructing adult life.
  12. Average life expectancy
    A person's fifty-fifty chance at birth of living to a given age.
  13. Twentieth-century life expectancy revolution
    The dramatic increase in average life expectancy that occurred during the first half of the twentieth century in the developed world.
  14. Maximum lifespan
    The biological limit of human life (about 105 years)
  15. Young-old
    People in their sixties and seventies.
  16. Old-old
    People age 80 and older.
  17. Great Recession of 2008
    Dramatic loss of jobs (and consumer spending) that began with the bursting of the US housing bubble in late 2007.
  18. Income inequality
    The gap between the rich and poor within a nation. Specifically, when income inequality is wide, a nation has few very affluent residents and a mass of disadvantaged citizens.
  19. Socioeconomic status (SES)
    A basic market referring to status on the educational and especially income rungs.
  20. Developed world
    The most affluent countries in the world.
  21. Developing world
    The more impoverished countries of the world.
  22. Collectivist cultures
    Societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness, over individual achievement.
  23. Individualistic cultures
    Societies that prize independence, competition, and personal success.
  24. Theory
    Any perspective explaining why people act the way they do. Theories allow us to predict behavior and also suggest how to intervene to improve behavior.
  25. Nature
    Biological or genetic causes of development.
  26. Nurture
    Environmental causes of development.
  27. Traditional behaviorism
    The original behavioral worldview that focused on charting and modifying only "objective," visible behaviors.
  28. Operant conditioning
    According to the traditional behavioral perspective, the law of learning that determines any voluntary response. Specifically, we act the way we do because we are reinforced for acting that way.
  29. Reinforcement
    Behavioral term for reward.
  30. Cognitive behaviorism (social learning theory)
    A behavioral worldview that emphasizes that people learn by watching others and that our thoughts about the reinforcers determine our behavior. Cognitive behaviorists focus on charting and modifying people's thoughts.
  31. Modeling
    Learning by watching and imitating others.
  32. Self-efficacy
    According to cognitive behaviorism, an internal belief in our competence that predicts whether we initiate activities or persist in the face of failures, and predicts the goals we set.
  33. Attachment theory
    Theory formulation by John Bowlby centering on the crucial importance to our species survival of being closely connected with a caregiver during early childhood and being attached to a significant other during all of life.
Card Set
PSYCH Chapter 1: The People and the Field
PSYCH 2314: Human Growth and Development