A&P Lab Special Senses: Hearing & Equilibrium

  1. The ear is a complex structure that is divided into three major areas: _____ ear, _____ ear, and _____ ear.
    • External
    • Middle 
    • Internal
  2. The external and middle ear are for ____ whereas the internal ear is for hearing and ____.
    • Hearing 
    • Equilibrium
  3. The external, or outer ear, is composed primarily of the _____ and the external  _____ meatus.
    • Auricle 
    • Acoustic
  4. The _____ or _____ is the skin-covered cartilaginous structure encircling the auditory canal opening.
    • Auricle 
    • Pinna
  5. The external acoustic meatus, or ________ canal, is short, narrow chamber carved into the temporal bone
    External Auditory
  6. The external auditory canal (external acoustic meatus) has skin-lined walls with wax-secreting glands called ______.
    Ceruminous glands
  7. Sounds that enter the external auditory canal eventually encounter the  ______, or ear drum.
    Tympanic membrane
  8. What divides the middle and external ear?
    The tympanic membrane (ear drum)
  9. The middle ear is essentially a small chamber- the  ______ cavity-found within the temporal bone.
    Tympanic
  10. The tympanic cavity is spanned by three small bones, collectively called the __________. (malleus, incus, stapes), which articulate to form a lever system that amplifies and transmits the vibratory motion of the eardrum to the fluids of the inner ear via _____.
    • Auditory ossicles
    • Oval window
  11. Name the auditory ossicles? 
    Name the other common name for each.
    • Malleus= Hammer
    • Incus= Anvil
    • Stapes= Stirrup
  12. Connecting the middle ear chamber with the nasopharynx is the ______, or auditory, tube (formally known as the eustachian tube).
    Pharyngotympanic
  13. The eardrum does not _____ properly unless the pressures on both of its surfaces are the same.
    Vibrate
  14. What is otitis media?
    Inflammation of the middle ear
  15. The internal (inner) ear consists of a system of bony and rather tortuous chambers called ____, or bony labyrinth, which is filled with an aqueous fluid called ______.
    • Osseous
    • Perilymph
  16. Suspended in the perilymph is the contours of the membranous labyrinth, a system that mostly follows the contours of the _____ labyrinth. 

    The membranous labyrinth is filled with a more viscous fluid called _______.
    • osseous
    • Endolymph.
  17. The _____  is composed of the auricle, lobule, external auditory canal, ceruminous glands, and tympanic membrane.
    external ear
  18. _____ (pinna) is the skin covered cartilaginous structure encircling the auditory canal opening.
    Auricle
  19. ____ is the portion of the pinna that lies inferior to the auditory canal.
    Lobule
  20. Ceruminous glands are found in the ________ canal and secrete ____.
    external auditory

    wax
  21. Tympanic membrane (eardrum) separates the external and middle ear and vibrates at the _______ frequency as the sound hitting it.
    exact same
  22. Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory tube) connects the middle ear to the inner ear

    This tube is normally flat however to equalize the pressure of the middle ear with the external air pressure during _____ or _____ the tube opens temporarily.
    yawning

    swallowing
  23. The osseous labyrinth contains three subdivisions.

    1-2: Vestibule and semicircular canals are involved with equilibrium.

    3: Cochlea which contains the sensory receptors for hearing and contains two chambers divided by the cochlear duct.
  24. _____ is the upper chamber, filled with perilymph and terminates at the ____, which seats the plate of the stapes.
    Scala vestibule

    oval window
  25. _____ is the lower chamber, filled with perilymph and is bounded by a membranous area called the ____.
    Scala tympani

    round window
  26. _____ (scala media) is filled with endolymph and supports the spiral organ of Corti
    The _____ contains the receptors for hearing - the hair cells and nerve ending of the cochlear nerve.
    • Cochlear duct
    • spiral organ of Corti
  27. InnerEar; membranous labyrinth:

    Name the receptors associated with hearing? 

    With Equilibrium?
    Hearing: Scala vestibule, Spiral organ of Corti, Cochlea, Scala tympani 

    Equilibrium: Semicircular Canals and Vestibule
  28. What is presbycusis?
    Natural loss of hearing.
  29. Anatomy of the Spiral Organ of Corti

    The hair cells (auditory receptors) rest on the ____ membrane, which forms the floor of the cochlear duct.
    The ____ membrane is a gelatinous membrane that overlies the "hairs" (stereocilia).
    The vestibular membrane forms the ____ of the cochlear duct.
    • Basilar
    • Tectorial
    • Roof
  30. Mechanism of Hearing

    The mechanism of hearing begins as sound waves pass from the external ear through the external auditory canal to the middle ear and into the internal ear where it eventually reaches the ____________.

    The traveling wave theory of von Békésy suggests that the ____ in the oval window initiates waves that cause maximal displacement of the basilar membrane and stimulate the hair cells in the spiral organ of Corti.

    High-frequency waves peak near the oval window.
    Low-frequency waves peaked near the ____ of the cochlea.
    • Spiral organ of Corti
    • Stirrup
    • Apex
  31. Mechanism of Hearing

    The mechanism of hearing begins as sound waves pass from the external ear through the external auditory canal to the middle ear and into the internal ear where it eventually reaches the spiral organ of Corti.

    The traveling wave theory of von Békésy suggests that the stirrup in the oval window initiates waves that cause maximal displacement of the basilar membrane and stimulate the ____  in the spiral organ of Corti.

    High-frequency waves peak near the ____.
    Low-frequency waves peaked near the apex of the cochlea.
    • Hair cells
    • Oval window
  32. The equilibrium apparatus (vestibular apparatus) of the inner ear is composed of the ____ and ____ of the bony labyrinth.

    -Vestibule contains the saclike ____ and ____.
    -Semicircular canals contain membranous semicircular ducts.
    --These membranes are filled with endolymph and contain receptor cells that are activated by bending their cilia
    • vestibule
    • semicircular canals
    • utricle
    • saccule
  33. The equilibrium apparatus (vestibular apparatus) of the inner ear is composed of the vestibule and semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth.

    -Vestibule contains the saclike utricle and saccule.
    -Semicircular canals contain membranous semicircular ___.
    --These membranes are filled with ____ and contain receptor cells that are activated by ____ their cilia
    • Ducts
    • Endolymph
    • Bending
  34. Semicircular canals are involved with the mechanism of ____ equilibrium.

    ____ is an enlarged region at the base of the semicircular duct which communicates with the utricle of the vestibule.
    -_____ is the receptor region within the ampulla which consists of a tuft of hair cells covered with a gelatinous cap called the cupula.

    Endolymph within the semicircular canal pushes the cupula in a direction opposite to the angular motion in which the head moves. This causes a depolarization of the hair cells and enhances transmission, however when the motion suddenly stops it cause hyperpolarization, which is the spinning sensation one feels.
    • Dynamic
    • Ampulla
    • Crista ampullaris
  35. Semicircular canals are involved with the mechanism of dynamic equilibrium.

    Ampulla is an enlarged region at the base of the semicircular duct which communicates with the utricle of the vestibule.
    -Crista ampullaris is the receptor region within the ampulla which consists of a tuft of hair cells covered with a gelatinous cap called the cupula.

    Endolymph within the semicircular canal pushes the cupula in a direction ____ to the angular motion in which the head moves. This causes a ____ of the hair cells and enhances transmission, however when the motion suddenly stops it cause hyperpolarization, which is the ____ sensation one feels.
    • Opposite
    • Depolarization
    • Spinning
  36. ____ are located on the walls of the saccule and utricle of the vestibule, and contain the hair cells essential to the mechanism of static equilibrium.

    Maculae respond to  pull providing information on which way is . . .
    • Maculae
    • gravitational
    • up or down and linear changes in speed.
  37. Maculae:

    Hair cells are embedded in an _____, a gelatinous material containing calcium carbonate (____).

    When the head moves the otoliths move in response causing hyperpolarization or depolarization of the hair cells and modify rate of impulse transmission.
    • otolithic membrane
    • otoliths
  38. Nystagmus: uncontrollable . . .

    Vertigo: a sensation of . . .
    • Rolling of the eyes in any direction or the trailing of the eyes in one direction followed by a rapid movement in the opposite direction
    • Dizziness and rotational movement when the movement is not occurring or has stopped.
  39. What is deafness due to a disorder of the auditory system of brainstem or cerebral cortex?
    Central Deafness
  40. ____ hearing loss occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear, tympanic membrane (eardrum), or middle ear (ossicles).
    Conductive
  41. Purpose of the balance test
    The ability to walk with balance and without dizziness, unless subjected to rotational forces, indicates normal function of the equilibrium apparatus.
  42. Purpose of the Barany Test
    • Evaluates the semicircular canals.
    • If the semicircular canals are operating normally, the subject will experience a sensation that the stool is still rotating immediately after it has stopped and will demonstrate nystagmus.
  43. Purpose of Romberg Test.
    Determines the integrity of the dorsal white column of the spinal cord, which transmits impulses to the brain from the proprioceptors involved in posture.
  44. The ___ test is a quick screening test for hearing. It can detect unilateral (one-sided) conductive hearing loss (middle ear hearing loss) and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (inner ear hearing loss).
    Weber
  45. The ____ test  is a hearing test, primarily for evaluating the loss of hearing in one ear (unilateral hearing loss).

    It compares the perception of sounds transmitted by air conduction to those transmitted by bone conduction through the mastoid.

    Thus, one can quickly screen for the presence of conductive hearing loss.
    Rinne
  46. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 1
    • 1: Cochlear Duct (scala media; contains endolymph)
    • 2: Spiral Organ
  47. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 2
    • 1: Auricle 
    • 2: Lobule
  48. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 3
    • 1: Helix 
    • 2: External acoustic meatus 
    • 3: Tympanic Membrane
  49. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 4
    • 1: External Ear
    • 2: Middle Ear
    • 3: Internal Ear (labyrinth)
  50. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 5
    1: Pharyngotympanic Tube
  51. Identify the marked blocks
    Image Upload 6
    • 1: Vestibular nerve 
    • 2: Cochlear duct in cochlea 
    • 3: Staples in Oval window
  52. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 7
    • 1: Cristea amullares in the membranous amullae
    • 2: Utricle in vestibule 
    • 3: Saccule in vestibule 
    • 4: Round Window
  53. Identify the marked blocks

    Image Upload 8
    • Top: Staples 
    • Middle: Oval window
    • Bottom: Round Window
  54. Identify the marked

    Image Upload 9
    • 1: semicircular canals 
    • 2: vestibule nerve
    • 3:cochlea  
    • 4: pharyngotympanic tube
  55. Identify the marked 

    Image Upload 10
    • 1: Oval Window 
    • 2: Round Window
    • 3: Vestibule
    • 4: Cochlea
  56. Identify the marked
    Image Upload 11
    • 1: Malleus 
    • 2: Incus
    • 3: Stapes 
    • 4: Tympanic Membrane
Author
fjn900
ID
325977
Card Set
A&P Lab Special Senses: Hearing & Equilibrium
Description
Final
Updated