Psychology Test #5

  1. When is middle adulthood?
    Ages 40-65
  2. By age 50, the accommodative ability of the lens is what compared to what it was at age 20?
  3. Presbyopia
    Around age 60, the lens loses its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances entirely
  4. Vitreous
    Transparent gelatin-like substance that fills the fills
  5. Rods
    Enable vision in dim light
  6. Cones
    Enable daylight and color vision
  7. Glaucoma
    Disease in which poor fluid drainage leads to a buildup of pressure within the eye, damaging the optic nerve
  8. Prebycusis
    Age-related hearing loss
  9. What are the three layers of our skin?
    • Epidermis-outer protective layer where new skin cells are constantly produced
    • Dermis-middle supportive layer, consisting of connective tissue that stretches and bounces back giving the skin flexibility
    • Hypodermis-an inner fatty layer that adds to the soft lines and shape of the skin
  10. Where do men and women accumulate fat?
    • Men-on the back and upper abdomen
    • Women-around the waist and upper arms
  11. Climacteric
    The midlife transition in which fertility declines
  12. Menopause
    The end of menstruation and reproductive capactiy
  13. Hot flashes
    Sensations of warmth accompanied by a rise in body temperature and redness in the face, neck, and chest, followed by sweating
  14. Hormone therapy
    Low daily doses of estrogen
  15. What is the most common cancer death in both genders?
  16. Oncogenes
    Cancer genes that directly undergo abnormal cell duplication
  17. Tumor suppressor genes
    Fail to keep oncogenes from multiplying
  18. Stability genes
    Normally eep genetic alterations to a minimum by repairing subtle DNA mistakes that occur either during normal cell duplication or as a result of environmental agents. When these genes don't function, mutations in many other genes occur at a higher rate
  19. Germline
    Due to an inherited predisposition
  20. Somatic
    Occurring in a single cell, which then multiplies
  21. Atherosclerosis
    A buildup of plaque in his coronary arteries, which encircle the heart and provide its muscles with oxygen and nutrients
  22. Heart attack
    Blockage of normal blood supply to an area of the heart usually brought on by a blood clot in one or more plaque-filled coronary arteries
  23. Arrhythmia
    Irregular heartbeat
  24. Angina pectoris
    Indigestion-like pain or crushing chest pain reveals an oxygen-deprived heart
  25. Angioplasty
    A procedure in which a surgeon threads a needle-thin catheter into your arteries and inflate a balloon at its tip, which flattens fatty deposits to allow blood to flow more freely
  26. Osteoporosis
    Age-related bone loss is severe
  27. Type A behavior pattern
    Extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience hostility, angry outbursts, and a sense of time pressure
  28. Expressed hostility
    Frequent angry outbursts; rude, disagreeable behavior; critical and condescending nonverbal cues during social interaction, including glares; and expressions of contempt and disgust
  29. Hardiness
    A set of three personal qualities--control, commitment, and challenge
  30. Crystallized intelligence
    Refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social conventions--abilities acquired because they are valued by the individual's culture
  31. Fluid intellingence
    Depends more heavily on basic information-processing skills--ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing information, and capacity of working memory
  32. Perceptual speed
    A fluid skill in which participants must, for example, identify within a time limit which of five shapes is identical to a model or whether pairs of multidigit numbers are the same or different
  33. Neural network view
    As neurons in the brain die, breaks in neural networks occur. The brain adapts by forming bypasses--new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient
  34. Information-loss view
    Suggests that older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the cognitive system. As a result, the whole system must slow down to inspect and interpret the information
  35. Inhibition
    Resistance to interference from irrelevant information
  36. What is crucial for all aspects of information processing?
  37. Practical problem solving
    Requires people to size up real-world situations and analyze how best to achieve goals that have a high degree of uncertainty
  38. Generativity versus stagnation
    Generativity involves reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
  39. Subjective age
    Feeling younger than one's actual age
  40. What are the four developmental tasks that middle-aged adults must confront in order to obtain internal harmony, according to Levinson?
    • Young-old
    • Destruction-creation
    • Masculinity-femininity  
    • Engagement-seperatness
  41. Midlife crisis
    Self-doubt and stress are especially great during the forties, and prompt major restructuring of the personality
  42. Possible selves
    Future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming. Possible selves are the temporal dimension of self-concept--what the individual is striving for and attempting to avoid
  43. What three qualities increased from early to middle adulthood?
    Self-acceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery
  44. Parental imperative theory
    An evolutionary view that holds that identification with traditional gender roles is maintained during the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children. Men become more goal-oriented, while women emphasize nurturance
  45. "Big five" personality traits
    Neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
  46. Feminization of poverty
    A trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult population living in poverty, regardless of age and ethnic group
  47. Kinkeeper
    Gathering the family for celebrations and making sure everyone stays in touch
  48. Skipped-generation families
    Live with grandparents but apart from parents
  49. Sandwich generation
    Refers to the idea that middle-aged adults must care for multiple generations above and below them at the same time
  50. Burnout
    A condition in which long-term job stress leads to mental exhaustion, a sense of loss of personal control, and feelings of reduced accomplishment
  51. Glass ceiling
    Women and ethnic minorities face an invisible barrier to advancement up the corporate ladder
  52. Functional age
    Actual competence and performance
  53. Average life expectancy
    The number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age
  54. What is the leading cause of overall adult death in the United States?
    Heart disease
  55. Average healthy life expectancy
    The number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health, without disease or injury
  56. Maximum lifespan
    Species-specific biological limit to length of life (in years), corresponding to the age at which the oldest known individual died
  57. Activities of daily living (ADLs)
    Basic self-care tasks required to live on one's own, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed or a chair, or eating
  58. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
    Tasks necessary to conduct the business of daily life and also requiring some cognitive competence, such as telephoning, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping, and paying bills
  59. Cataracts
    Cloudy areas in the lens, resulting in foggy vision and (without surgery) eventual blindness
  60. Macular degeneration
    When light-sensitive cells in the macula, or central region of the retina, break down, in which central vision blurs and gradually is lost
  61. What is the leading cause of blindness among older adults?
    Macular degeneration
  62. Autoimmune response
    The immune system is more likely to malfunction by turning against normal body tissues
  63. Sleep apnea
    A condition in which breathing ceases for 10 seconds or longer, resulting in many brief awakenings
  64. Assistive technology
    Array of devices that permit people with disabilities to improve their functioning
  65. Person-environment fit
    Match between older people's current capabilities and the demands of their living environments
  66. Compression of morbidity
    Ideally, as life expectancy extends, we want the average period of diminished vigor before death--especially, the number of months or years of ill-health and suffering--to decrease
  67. Emphysema
    Extreme loss of elasticity in lung tissue, which results in serious breathing difficulty
  68. Primary aging
    • -Another term for biological aging
    • -Genetically influenced declines that affect all members of our species and take place even in the context of overall good health
  69. Secondary aging
    Declines due to hereditary defects and negative environmental influences
  70. Frailty
    Involves weakened functioning of diverse organs and body systems, yielding symptoms that profoundly interfere with everyday competence
  71. Osteoarthritis
    The most common type, which involves deteriorating cartilage on the ends of bones of frequently used joints
  72. Rheumatoid arthritis
    Involves the whole body. An autoimmune response leads to inflammation of connective tissue, particularly the membrane that line the joints, resulting in overall stiffness, inflammation, and aching. Tissue in the cartilage tends to grow, damaging surrounding ligaments, muscles, and bones. The result is deformed joints and often serious loss of mobility
  73. What is the most common cause of mobility problems and of surgical hip and knee replacements in older adults?
  74. Dementia
    Refers to a set of disorders, occurring almost entirely in old age in which many aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted
  75. Alzheimer's disease
    The most common form of dementia, in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior
  76. Neurofibrillary tangles
    • -Bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures and that contain abnormal forms of a protein called tau
    • -Inside neurons
  77. Amyloid plagues
    • -Outside neurons
    • -Dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells
  78. Cerebrovascular dementia
    A series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells, producing step-by-step degeneration of mental ability, with each step occurring abruptly after a stroke
  79. Respite
    Time away from providing care
  80. Assisted living
    A homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home but less than is usually provided in nursing homes
  81. Selective optimization with compensation
    Narrowing their goals, they select personally valued activities to optimize (or maximize) returns from their diminishing energy. They also find new ways to compensate for losses
  82. Episodic memory
    Recall of everyday experiences
  83. What serves as an important retrieval tool when we try to remember things?
  84. Temporal memory
    Recall of the order in which events occurred or how recently they happened
  85. Recognition
    A fairly automatic type of memory that demands little mental effort
  86. Age-relate memory declines are greatest on what type of tasks?
    Tasks that require effortful, strategic processing
  87. Implicit memory
    Memory without conscious awareness
  88. Associate memory deficit
    Difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information
  89. Remote memory
    Ver long-term recall
  90. Autobiographical memory
    Memory for personally meaningful events
  91. Reminiscence bump
    Among remote events recalled using wither word-cue or time-line procedures, most happened between ages 10 and 30--a period of heightened autobiographical memory
  92. Retrospective memory
    Remembering of things past
  93. Prospective memory
    Refers to remembering to engage in planned actions in the future
  94. Tip-of-the-tongue state
    Certainty that they knew a word accompanied by an inability to produce it
  95. Wisdom
    Breadth and depth of practical knowledge, ability to reflect on and apply that knowledge in ways that make life more bearable and worthwhile; emotional maturity, including the ability to listen patiently and empathetically and give sound advice; and the altruistic form of creativity. Expertise in the conduct and meaning of life
  96. Terminal decline
    Refers to acceleration in deterioration of cognitive functioning prior to death
  97. Ego integrity versus despair
    Involves coming to terms with one's life. Adults who arrive at a sense of integrity feel whole, complete, and satisfied with their achievements
  98. According to Robert Peck, attaining ego integrity involves what three distinct tasks?
    Ego differentiation, body transcendence, and ego transcendence
  99. Gerotranscendence
    A cosmic and transcendent perspective directed forward and outward beyond the self
  100. Affect optimization
    The ability to maximize positive emotion and dampen negative emotion
  101. Reminiscence
    Telling stories about people and events from their past and reporting associated thoughts and feelings
  102. Knowledge-based reminiscence
    Drawing on their past for effective problem-solving strategies and for teaching younger people
  103. Life review
    Calling up past experiences with the goal of achieving greater self-understanding
  104. Self-focused reminiscence
    Engaged in to reduce boredom and revive bitter events
  105. Other-focused reminiscence
    Directed at social goals such as solidifying family and friendship ties and reliving relationships with lost loved ones
  106. Third age
    Added years of longevity and health plus financial stability have granted this active, opportunistic time of life to so many contemporary seniors that some experts believe a new phase of late adulthood has evolved
  107. Dependency-support script
    Dependent behaviors are attended to immediately
  108. Independence-ignore script
    Independent behaviors are mostly ignored
  109. Person-environment fit
    A good match between their abilities and the demands of their living environments, which promotes adaptive behavior and psychological well-being. When people cannot maximize use of their capacities (have become excessively dependent), they react with boredom and passivity. When they encounter environmental demands that are too great (receive too little assistance), they experience overwhelming stress
  110. What has the greatest impact on mental health in late life?
    High-quality relationship, involving expressions of kindness, encouragement, respect, and emotional closeness
  111. Disengagement theory
    Mutual withdrawal between older adults and society takes place in anticipation of death
  112. Activity theory
    States that social barriers to engagement, not the desires of aging adults, cause declining rates of interaction. When older people lose certain roles (for example, through retirement or widowhood), they try to find others in an effort to stay about as active and busy as they were in middle age
  113. Continuity theory
    Does not view older adults' efforts to remain active as simple replacement of lost social roles with new ones. Rather, according to this view, most aging adults strive to maintain a personal system--an identity and a set of personality dispositions, interests, roles, and skills--that promotes life satisfaction by ensuring consistency between their past and anticipated future
  114. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    Social interaction extends lifelong selection processes
  115. Aging in place
    Remaining in a familiar setting where they have control over their everyday life
  116. Congregate housing
    An increasingly popular long-term care option--provides a variety of support services, including meals in a common dining room, along with watchful oversight of residents with physical and mental disabilities
  117. Life-care communities
    Offer a range of housing alternatives, from independent or congregate housing to full nursing home care. For a large initial payment and additional monthly fees, life care guarantees that seniors' changing needs will be met within the same facility as they age
  118. Social convoy
    An influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life
  119. Secondary friends
    People who are not intimates but with whom they spend time occasionally, such as a group that meets for lunch, bridge, or museum tours
  120. Bridge jobs
    New part-time jobs or full-time jobs of shorter duration
  121. Optimal aging
    Gains are maximized and losses minimized
  122. Thanatology
    Study of death and dying
  123. What are the three phases the person often moves through in the transition from life to death?
    • Agonal phase: Gasps and muscle spasms during the first moments in which the regular heartbeat disintegrates
    • Clinical death: A short interval follows in which heartbeat, circulation, breathing, and brain functioning stop, but resuscitation is still possible 
    • Mortality: The individual passes into permanent death
  124. Brain death
    Irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem (which controls reflexes)
  125. Persistent vegetative stage
    The cerebral cortex no longer registered electrical activity but the brain stem remained active
  126. An understanding of death is based on five ideas
    • Permanence: Once a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
    • Inevitability: All living things eventually die
    • Cessation: All living functions, including thought, feeling, movement, and bodily processes, cease at death
    • Applicability: Death applies only to living things
    • Causation: Death is caused by a breakdown of bodily functioning
  127. Death anxiety
    Fear and apprehension of death
  128. Elisabeth's Kübler-Ross's theory of five typical responses or stages to the prospect of death and the ordeal of dying
    Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
  129. Appropriate death
    One that makes sense in terms of the individual's pattern of living and values and, at the same time, preserves or restores significant relationships and is as free of suffering as possible
  130. Hospice
    Is not a place but a comprehensive program of support services for terminally ill people and their families. It aims to provide a caring community sensitive to the dying person's needs to patients and family members can prepare for death in ways that are satisfying to them
  131. Palliative or comfort care
    Relieves pain and other symptoms (nausea, breathing difficulties, insomnia, and depression) rather than prolonging life
  132. Euthanasia
    The practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition
  133. Passive euthanasia
    Life-sustaining treatment is withheld or withdrawn, permitting a patient to die naturally
  134. Advance medical directive
    A written statement of desired medical treatment should they become incurably ill
  135. Living will
    People specify the treatments they do or do not want in case of a terminal illness, coma, or other near-death situation
  136. Durable power of attorney for health care
    Authorizes appointment of another person (usually, though not always, a family member) to make health-care decisions on one's behalf
  137. Voluntary active euthanasia
    Doctors or others act directly, at a patient's request, to end suffering before a natural end to life
  138. Bereavement
    The experience of losing a loved one by death
  139. Grief
    Intense physical and psychological distress
  140. Mourning
    The culturally specified expression of the bereaved person's thoughts and feelings
  141. Dual-process model of coping with loss
    Effective coping requires people to oscillate between dealing with the motional consequences of loss and attending to life changes, which--when handled successfully--have restorative, or healing, effects
  142. Anticipatory grieving
    Acknowledging that the loss is inevitable and preparing emotionally for it
  143. Disenfranchised grief
    A sense of loss without the opportunity to mourn publicly and benefit from others' support
Card Set
Psychology Test #5
Middle Adulthood