Learning - to improve RETENTION - parameters (practice & feedback) - 2
- Practice - Random or serial/Variable rather than constant
- Feedback: variable
- Summed - ex: after every 3rd trial
- Fading - starts w/feedback after every trial —> feedback after every 3rd trial
- Bandwidth - only when errors exceed certain level
Learning - to improve RETENTION & INC depth of cognitive processing - what type of feedback?
- Ex: summed, fading, bandwidth
Learning - to improve PERFORMANCE - parameters (practice & feedback) - 2
- Practice - Constant/blocked
- Feedback - after every trial
Feedback - after every trial - improves what? used when?
- INC performance
- Early learning
Feedback - summed/fading/bandwidth - used for what? - 1
To INC retention
Practice - to improve performance use what type?
Practice - to improve retention use what type?
Practice - Variable/serial - used when? - 1
To improve retention
Practice - constant/blocked - used when? - 2
- Early learning
- To improve performance
Practice - distributed - used when - 4
- Cognitive impaired
- Complex tasks
- Learner has short attention, poor concentration or fatigues easily
- Motivation is low
Environment - open - used when? Do what?
- Later learning
- Vary environment
- Introduce distractors
Environment - closed - used when? Do what?
- Early motor learning
- DEC environmental distractions
Stages of motor learning - 3
- Cognitive - understanding of skill
- Associative - how to do movement, rather than on what to do
- Autonomous - automatic
Phases of motor learning - cognitive - parameters - 2
- Understanding of task
- Helps determine what to do
Phases of motor learning - associative - parameters - 3
- Makes strategy
- Practices it
- Makes adjustments
Phases of motor learning - autonomous - parameters - 2
- High-level skilled performance
- Few adjustments needed
Components of motor learning - 3
Measure of motor learning - 4
- Resistance to contextual change
Early stages of motor learning - cognitive stage - parameters - 2
- Dependence on visual input
- Developing level of correctness - knowledge of RESULTS
Middle stages of motor learning - associative stage - parameters - 1
Early/Later training - focus on what type of feedback?
- Early - Visual feedback
- Later - Proprioceptive feedback
Guided movement is most effective for - 2
- Slow postural
- Positioning tasks
Tasks that have highly integrated components should be practiced how? - 1
Open motor skills - performed where?
Variable, changing environment
Externally paced skills - define
- Must comply w/timing demands from environment
- Ex: walking through a revolving door
Closed motor skills - performed where?
Stable, non-changing environment
Serial skills - define
- Movements that combine a series of discrete elements, w/specific order of elements
Continuous skills - define
- Movement skills that appear to have no recognizable beginning or inherent beginning or end
Behavioral modification - best achieved through what?
- (+) reinforcement
- (-) behaviors should be ignored
Open vs closed motor skills
- Open - Performed in variable, changing environment
- Closed - stable, non-changing environment