Circulatory Systems part 1

  1. Single-celled organisms exchange __
    directly with the environment

    Structures and body shapes allow exchange between cells and the environment
  2. __ systems bring the external environment inside the animal (sponges)

    (page 5 on slide)
  3. Cells are supported by __ for nutrient delivery & waste removal.
    extracellular fluid
  4. A circulatory (cardiovascular) system consists of:
    • muscular pump: heart
    • fluid: blood
    • series of conduits: blood vessels
  5. In __ system, a pump (heart) moves hemolymph though vessels. Extracellular fluid combines with hemolymph. Fluid moves between cells & returns to the heart through openings with valves. - __.
    an open circulatory; ostia

    found in arthropods & mollusks

    (page 8 on slide)
  6. In __ system, blood is kept separate from the interstitial fluid. Fluid in the circulatory system is blood plasma. Blood is pumped though the __ by one or more hearts
    a closed circulatory; vascular system

    (page 8 on slide)
  7. 2 closed circulatory circuits
    • pulmonary: blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and back again
    • systemic: blood travels from the heart to the rest of the body & back to the heart
  8. __ carry blood away from the heart and branch into __ that feed the __
    • Arteries;
    • arterioles;
    • capillary beds

    (page 16 on slide)
  9. site of exchange between blood and tissue fluid
  10. __ drain the __ and form __, which deliver blood back to the heart
    • Venules;
    • capillary beds;
    • veins

    (page 16 on slide)
  11. advantage of having 4-chambered hearts & separate pulmonary & systemic circuits
    • Systemic circuit always receives blood with higher O2 content.
    • Gas exchange is maximized.
    • Circuits can operate at different pressures.

    in mammals and birds
  12. The __ pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit.
    right ventricle

    (page 20 on slide)
  13. The __ pumps blood through the systemic circuit.
    left ventricle

    (page 20 on slide)
  14. Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria & ventricles & prevent backflow when __.
    vetricles contract

    - tricuspid & mitral valve
  15. The pulmonary & aortic valve lie between the ventricles & the major arteries and prevent backflow when __.
    ventricles relax

    - also called semilunar valves

    (page 22 on slide)
  16. The right atrium receives __ blood from __
    • deoxygenated;
    • superior/inferior vena cava (above & below the diaphragm) & the coronary sinus (from the heart)
  17. steps in blood flow from right atria
    • 1. Deoxygenated blood passes though SVC, IVC, & coronary sinus to the right atrium.
    • 2. Blood passes from the right atrium through tricuspid valve to right ventricle. (mostly though passive flow).
    • 3. The atrium contracts, adding a little more blood to the ventricle.
    • 4. Then the ventricle contracts. The AV valve closes and blood is pumped though the pulmonary artery to the lungs.

    (page 20 on slide)
  18. __ blood returns to the left atrium though the __
    • Oxygenated;
    • pulmonary veins
  19. steps in blood flow from left atria
    • 1. Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium though the pulmonary veins.
    • 2. The left ventricle fills as blood enters through the mitral valve. (mostly passive flow)
    • 3. The atrium contracts (further filling ventricle).
    • 4. Then the ventricle contracts. The aortic valve opens and blood circulates through the aorta.

    (page 20 on slide)
Card Set
Circulatory Systems part 1
Week 7