Chp 14 Periodontium

  1. The periodontium consists of the supporting apparatus of the tooth, including the
    gingiva, cementum, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament
  2. The function of the periodontium is to
    support the tooth in the alveolus
  3. Cementum is the part of the periodontium that _______ by _______
    • attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone
    • anchoring the periodontal ligament
  4. The cementum covers the
    entire root
  5. Cementum is a hard tissue that is thickest at the ______ and thinnest at _______
    • thickest at the apex and in the interradicular areas of multirooted teeth
    • the CEJ
  6. Cementum receives its nutrition from the
    the periodontal ligament
  7. Like dentin, cementum can form
    throughout the life of a tooth
  8. Mature cementum is ____% mineralized inorganic material, ____% organic material and ____ water
    • 65%
    • 23%
    • 12%
  9. The percentage of crystalline formation in cementum most closely resembles
  10. Cementum forms on the root after
    the disintegration of Hertwig’s root sheath
  11. After the disintegration of Hertwig’s root sheath the undifferentiated cells of the ______ to come in contact with the newly formed root dentin, inducing the mesenchymal cells to become _______
  12. cementogenesis
    laying down cementoid
  13. cementoblasts can become entrapped by the __________ becoming ________
    • the cementum they produce
    • cementocytes
  14. Cementum is composed of a
    mineralized fibrous matrix and cells
  15. The fibrous matrix may consist of both
    Sharpey’s fibers and nonperiodontal fibers (collagen fibers of the matrix).
  16. Sharpey’s fibers are a portion of the ______ from the ____ that are each
    collagen fibers from the periodontal ligament partially inserted into the outer portion of the cementum
  17. Each cementocyte lies in its _______. The lacunae also have _______
    • lacuna
    • canaliculi
  18. All the canaliculi are oriented toward the periodontal ligament and contain cytoplasmic processes to
    obtain nutrients from the periodontal ligament
  19. In ____% of cases, the cementum overlaps the enamel at the CEJ
  20. In ___% of the cases, the cementum and enamel meet end to end
  21. In about ____% of the time, there is a gap between the cementum and the enamel
  22. Similar to bone, cementum undergoes histological removal within the tissue as a result of trauma. This involves resorption by odontoclasts resulting in
    reversal lines
  23. Apposition of cementum can be noted by its layers of ______ or _____
    • growth
    • arrest lines
  24. Two basic types of cementum are formed by cementoblasts:
  25. Acellular cementum consists of the _______ and is called _______
    • the first layers of cementum deposited at the dentinocemental junction
    • primary cementum
  26. Acellular cementum is formed at a ____ rate
  27. Cellular or _______ cementum consists of the _________ deposited over the acellular cementum, mainly in the _______
    • secondary
    • last layers of cementum
    • apical 1/3 of the root
  28. The width of cellular cementum _______ during the life of the tooth
  29. The portion of the jaw bone that contains the roots of the teeth is called the
    alveolar bone, alveolar process, or alveolar ridge
  30. The portion apical to the roots of the teeth is called ________ which forms the ______
    • basal bone
    • body of the maxilla or mandible
  31. The alveolar bone is divided into the ______ and _____
    alveolar bone proper and the supporting alveolar bone
  32. The alveolar bone proper is the
    lining of the tooth socket or alveolus
  33. The alveolar bone proper is also called the
    cribriform plate
  34. The alveolar bone proper is also called _______ because ________
    • bundle bone
    • Sharpey’s fibers are inserted into it
  35. A portion of the alveolar bone proper is seen on radiographs as the radiopaque
    lamina dura
  36. The alveolar crest is the _______ the alveolar bone proper
    most cervical rim of
  37. In a healthy situation, the alveolar crest is slightly apical to the CEJ by about
    1 to 2 millimeters
  38. The supporting alveolar bone consists of ________ and ________
    cortical bone and trabecular bone
  39. The cortical bone, or cortical plates, consists of ________ on the _________
    • plates of compact bone
    • facial and lingual surfaces of the alveolar bone
  40. The trabecular bone consists of ______ bone that is located between the _______ and the ________
    • cancellous
    • alveolar bone proper
    • plates of cortical bone
  41. Only the portions of trabecular bone _________and ________ are ever seen on any type of radiographs
    between the teeth and between the roots
  42. The alveolar bone between two neighboring teeth is called the ______ or _______
    interdental septum or interdental bone
  43. The interdental septum consists of both the
    compact bone of the alveolar bone proper and cancellous bone of the trabecular bone
  44. The alveolar bone between the roots of the tooth is called the ______ or _______
    interradicular septum or interradicular bone
  45. The periodontal ligament (PDL) is that part of the periodontium that provides __________
    for the attachment of the teeth to the surrounding alveolar bone by way of the cementum
  46. The PDL appears as the periodontal space of _________ on radiographs
    0.4 to 1.5 millimeters
  47. The first bone to go in periodontal disease is the ______ bone
  48. The periodontal ligament is an
    organized fibrous connective tissue
  49. The roles of the periodontal ligaments are to transmit ________ and act as a ________
    • occlusal forces from the teeth to the bone
    • shock absorber for the soft tissue structures around the teeth such as the nerves and blood vessels
  50. The periodontal ligament also serves as the _________ for the cementum and alveolar bone
  51. Cells in the periodontal ligament also participate in the
    formation and resorption of the hard tissues of the periodontium
  52. The periodontal ligament and its nerve supply provide a very efficient _______ allowing us _______ and ___________
    • proprioceptive mechanism
    • feel even the most delicate forces applied to the teeth and any displacement of the teeth due to these forces
  53. The periodontal ligament also transmits _____, _______, _______ and _______
    pain, touch, pressure and temperature sensations
  54. The periodontal ligament also has a vascular supply, lymphatics and nerve supply, which enter the _________ of the tooth to supply the pulp
    apical foramen
  55. Two types of nerves are found within the periodontal ligament
    • myelinated afferent or sensory nerve
    • autonomic sympathetic
  56. The ________ is the most common cell in the periodontal ligament
  57. The periodontal ligament also has cells not found in other connective tissues, such as
    a line of cementoblasts along the cemental surface
  58. The periodontal ligament has what kind of cells
    osteoclasts and cementoclasts as well as odontoclasts and odontoblasts
  59. What group of epithelial cells are located in the periodontal ligament
    Epithelial rests of Malassez
  60. Most of the fibers of the periodontal ligament are
    principal fibers
  61. The ends of the principal fibers that are within either cementum or alveolar bone proper are called
    Sharpey’s fibers
  62. The main principal fiber group is the _________, which consists of what five fiber groups
    • alveolodental ligament
    • alveolar crest
    • horizontal
    • oblique
    • apical
    • interradicular
  63. The alveolar crest group of the alveolodental group originates in the ________ and fans out to insert into the _______
    • alveolar crest of the alveolar bone proper
    • cervical cementum
  64. The function of the alveolar crest group is to
    resist tilting, intrusive, extrusive and rotational forces
  65. The horizontal group of the alveolodental group originates in the _________ and inserts into the ________
    • alveolar bone
    • cementum in a horizontal manner
  66. The function of the horizontal group is to
    resist tilting forces, which try to force the tooth to tip either mesially, distally, lingually or facially, as well as rotational forces
  67. The _______ group of the alveolodental group is the most numerous of the fiber groups and covers the _______
    • oblique
    • apical two-thirds of the root
  68. The oblique group originate in the _______ and extend ______ to insert _________
    • alveolar bone proper
    • apically
    • more apically into cementum in an oblique manner
  69. The function of the oblique group is to
    resist intrusive forces, which try to push the tooth inward, as well as rotational forces
  70. The apical group of the alveolodental group radiates from the _________ to insert into the _______
    • apical region of the cementum
    • the surrounding alveolar bone proper
  71. The function of the apical group is to
    resist extrusive forces, which try to pull the tooth outward, as well as rotational forces
  72. The interradicular group of the alveolodental group is found
    only in multirooted teeth
  73. The interradicular group is inserted in the ________ superficial to ________
    cementum of one root to the cementum of the other root(s) superficial to the interradicular septum and thus has no bony attachment.
  74. The interradicular group works together with the ______ and _____ groups to _______
    • alveolar crest and apical groups
    • resist intrusive, extrusive and tilting as well as rotational forces
  75. Another principal fiber other than the alveolodental ligament is the _____ or ____
    interdental ligament or transseptal ligament
  76. The interdental ligament inserts _______ into the ______
    • mesiodistally or interdentally
    • cervical cementum of neighboring teeth over the alveolar crest
  77. Transseptal fibers travel from cementum to cementum without
    any bony attachment
  78. The function of the transseptal fibers is to resist
    rotational forces and thus to hold the teeth in interproximal contact
  79. Another group of fibers called the ______ do not support the teeth, but function to support the _______
    • the gingival fiber group
    • marginal gingival tissues to maintain their relationship to the tooth
  80. The gingival fiber group is found within the
    lamina propria of the marginal gingiva
  81. What are the four GINGIVAL FIBER GROUP
    • Circular fibers
    • Dentogingival fibers
    • Alveologingival fibers
    • Dentoperiostial fibers
  82. The circular ligament ______
    encircles the tooth and serves to maintain gingival integrity
  83. The dentogingival ligament inserts in the ______ and extends into ________
    • cementum on the root, apical to the epithelial attachment
    • the lamina propria of the marginal gingiva
  84. The dentogingival ligament has _______ to the cementum
    only one mineralized attachment
  85. The dentogingival ligament works with the ________ to maintain gingival integrity
    circular ligament
  86. The alveologingival fibers extend from the ______ into the _________
    • alveolar crest of the alveolar bone proper and radiate coronally
    • overlying lamina propria of the marginal gingiva
  87. The alveologingival fibers help to attach the _____ to the _______
    gingiva to the alveolar bone
  88. the dentoperiosteal fibers, which course from the
    cementum near the CEJ, across the alveolar crest
Card Set
Chp 14 Periodontium
Chp 14 Periodontium