DNA Terms

  1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems
  2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
  3. Nucleotide
    any of a group of molecules that, when linked together, form the building blocks of DNA or RNA
  4. Uracil
    one of the 4 bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of RNA; this nitrogenous base pairs with adenine.
  5. Adenine
    one of the 4 bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; this nitrogenous base pairs with thymine.
  6. Thymine
    one of the 4 bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; this nitrogenous base pairs with adenine.
  7. Guanine
    one of the 4 bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; this nitrogenous base pairs with cytosine.
  8. Cytosine
    one of the 4 bases that combine with sugar and phosphate to form a nucleotide subunit of DNA; this nitrogenous base pairs with guanine.
  9. Replication
    copying DNA for cell division
  10. Transcription
    making RNA from DNA
  11. Amino Acid
    compound with one amino acid and one carboxyl group
  12. Polypeptide
    Long chain of amino acids
  13. Phosphate Group
    A phosphorous atom bound to 4 oxygen atoms, but it has many important roles.  Along with sugars and bases, it makes up nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA.  As part of energy carriers, like ATP, it provides energy for moving our muscles.
  14. Translation
    mRNA turned into amino acids
  15. Gene Expression
    gene that makes a product and the product does its job.
  16. RNA Polymerase
    an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA. In cells, RNAP is necessary for constructing RNA chains using DNA genes as templates, a process called transcription.
  17. Nitrogenous Base
    A nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base.  They make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA;  adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
  18. Messenger RNA
    The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. It is synthesized from a DNA template during the process of transcription.
  19. Codon
    a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule
  20. Genetic Code
    the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
  21. Transfer RNA
    RNA consisting of folded molecules that transport amino acids from the cytoplasm of a cell to a ribosome
  22. Anticodon
    a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA
  23. Ribosomal DNA
    a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are assemblies of proteins and rRNA molecules that translate mRNA molecules to produce proteins
  24. Operator
    a segment of DNA to which a transcription factor binds to regulate gene expression by repressing it
  25. Operon
    a unit made up of linked genes that is thought to regulate other genes responsible for protein synthesis.
  26. Lac Operon
    (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria
  27. Repressor
    a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA.
  28. Exon
    any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing
  29. Point Mutation
    single base modification, is a type of mutation that causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material, DNA or RNA
  30. Gene Rearrangement
    Mutations that move an entire gene to a new location.
  31. Gene Alterations
    A change in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism or virus, sometimes resulting in the appearance of a new character or trait not found in the parental type
  32. Insertion Mutation
    the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence
  33. Deletion Mutation
    occurs when part of a DNA molecule is not copied during DNA replication. This uncopied part can be as small as a single nucleotide or as much as an entire chromosome
  34. Frameshift Mutation
    a genetic mutation caused by insertions or deletions of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three
Author
Bookworm48
ID
325710
Card Set
DNA Terms
Description
DNA Terms
Updated