1. Benefits of exercise
    • improves mood
    • fights chronic disease
    • increase lifespan
    • increase energy level
    • better sleep
    • increase sexual arousal
    • increase socializing
  2. Guidelines for US dept of health
    • 2.5 hrs a week
    • aerobic activity at least 10 min
    • adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities 2 or more times a week
  3. HIstory of exercise
    • Paleolithic - did not need gyms
    • civilizations - less activity
    • industrialization - even less activity
    • food environment has increased need for exercise even more
    • muscularity tied to beauty/health
    • exercise science
  4. Underexcercising
    physical activity that is occurring less than needed to maintain cardiovascular health, fitness, flexibility, and strength
  5. Physical consequences of underexercising
    • coronary artery disease
    • hypertension
    • cerebral vascular accidents
    • type II diabetes
    • osteoarthritis
    • osteoporosis
    • impaired muscle strength
    • obesity
    • gallbladder disease
    • sleep apnea
    • cancers
  6. Categories of exercise
    • Excessive
    • compulsive
    • obligatory
  7. Signs of excessive exercise
    • beyond requirements for good health
    • exercise despite injury
    • fanatical about weight and diet
    • work, school, relationships suffer
    • loses the fun of it all
    • define self-worth based on performance
    • never satisfied with achievement
    • doesn't victory
  8. Excessive factors
    • number or how many
    • frequency or how often
    • duration or how long
    • intensity or how hard
    • is it appropriate for age, circumstances, and/or health status
  9. Compulsive exercise
    • person feels compelled to exercise a certain way at a ceratin time
    • more ritualistic type
  10. Obligatory exercise
    • person must exercise no matter what the circumstances
    • can be both compulsive and obligatory
  11. Exercise abuse
    • reliance on physical activity as the primary means of coping with stress
    • exercise continued even when ill or injured
    • withdrawal symptoms - insomnia, change in apetite, trouble concentrating, moodiness
  12. Physical consequences of excessive exercise
    • Sex hormone levels
    • bone health, increase risk of fractures
    • overuse injuries
    • decreased immune funtion
    • dehydration or heat stroke
    • hyponatremia - hyperdydration
  13. AN and excessive exercise
    • Exercise -> AN : often childhood athlete are more active than others their age
    • AN- -> exerscise : exercise as an additional weight loss method
  14. ED and excessive exercise
    • prevalence of excessive exercise among eating disorder patients range from 33-over 80%
    • patients who excessively exercise are more likely to have other, more severe ED symptoms
    • patients who excessively exercise need a long period of recovery
  15. Activity anorexia (study with rats)
    • LInk b/w starvation and exercise
    • Low leptin level -> triggered increase in activity
    • Rat wheel running
    • food restriction + excessive exercise = death
  16. BN and excessive exercise
    • BN-nonpurge -> use exercise to compensate for overeating
    • athletes at greater risk?
    • prevalence underestimated
  17. Exercise and ED study
    • patients with ED tended to underreport amount of weekly-to-vigorous physical activity
    • dliberate underreporting due to fear of increase in meal plan?
    • different understanding of exercise?
  18. ED in athletes
    • sports and body image satisfaction
    • unusual eating patters socially acceptable in athletes
    • striving very low body fat percentages
    • 15-62% of college athletes show signs of disordered eating
  19. Predictors of disordered eating in female athletes
    • drive for thinness and performance
    • social pressure on body shape
    • social pressure on eating
    • performance perfectionism
    • team trust
  20. Male vs female athletes
    • 62% of females wanted to lose 5 lbs
    • 23% of males " "
  21. Female athlete triad
    • disordered eating
    • amenorrhea
    • osteoporosis
  22. Overtraining syndrome (staleness)
    • Experience physical or psychological problems
    • belief that decline in performance is due to not training hard enough
  23. ED risk factors for athletes
    • belief that lower weight improves performance
    • imbalance b/w energy input and output resulting in weight loss
    • low self-esteem, genetic history, physical abuse, chronic dieting, peer pressure
    • coaches who focus only on success and performance rather than on the athlete as a whole person
    • performance anxiety
    • social influences
    • changes in body weight or muscle mass
    • personality characteristics: disciplined, perfectionistic, control seeking
    • competition
  24. Signs of possible ED in athletes
    • weight loss below ideal competitive weight
    • trains despite injury
    • inability to complete workouts
  25. Signs of unhealthy exercise in athletes
    • primary means of coping
    • exercise despite injury
    • withdrawal
    • overuse injuries
    • stress fractures
    • loss of bone density
    • decreased immunity
    • frequent colds
    • decrease in sport performance
    • 'overtraining syndrome"
  26. Dancing, gymnastics, and figure skating
    • focus on body - pressure to look a certain way
    • subjectivity of the judging system
    • authoritarian clothes
    • negative comments
    • over-dominant
  27. running
    • obligatory running
    • fear of fat
    • restricted diet
    • undue influence of body shape or weight on self-evaluation
    • personality characteristics common to AN
  28. Potential role of the coach
    • plays role in physical and psychological health of your athletes
    • key figure in creating training environments conducive to successful athletic performance as well as emotionally rewarding sport experiences
    • notice physical changes or shifts in unhealthy attitudes and behaviors
    • involve athlete's family whenever appropriate
    • take warning signs and eating disordered behaviors seriously
  29. Prevention for athletes
    • positive, person-oriented coaching style
    • social influence and support from teammates with healthy attitudes
    • coaches who emphasize factors that contribute to personal sucesse
Card Set
Lecture #7