Marine Biology

  1. Salmon
    • Sense gravitational pull toward the place that they were born .
    • flesh of the salmon begin to show through their skin when it is time for reproduction
    • they die so that they can make food for the young that they spawn
  2. Non sexual reproduction
    • Clones 
    • Colonial reproduction on the other hand can arise from sexually formed zygote.
  3. Cost of Sex
    • expenditure of energy 
    • time to find a mate 
    • competition with other mates 
    • need of another person in order to carry on genes
  4. Benefits of Sex
    • Genetic variability
    • Diversity
    • new gene combination
    • crossing over and meiosis
  5. Modules
    • More resistance to competition, disturbance, and we are more likely to pass on our genome Kin selection 
    • Eusociality
  6. Sequential Hermaphrodites
    • Protgyny= ,ale function increase function when it get older and larger
    • Proandry- male function does not increase with size. Males are usually smaller and females are larger. Also, in the case where male fight to maintain a group of female mates
  7. 4 factors in reproductive sucess
    • Age for first birth
    • Investment-effort
    • predictability of success 
    • young versus old mortality death rate
  8. Paladus Jordani ( Shrimp)
    • When there was an increase in the catching of these shrimp of a certain size ( above 75mm).
    • females were the bigger type of shrimp thus most of the females were being caught and this was affecting the reproductive cycle of the shrimp 
    • Thus the shrimp responded by changing in size ( getting smaller)
  9. Direct versus spawning
    • plankton's sperm( timing and specificity important)
    • when there is direct sperm transfer there is the problem of finding a mate and timing of the reproductive cycle. Specialized binding of the sperm with the egg.
  10. Bindin and Lysin
    • Lysin makes a hole in the egg cell membrane 
    • Bindin allows the sperm to bind to the egg.
  11. timing and sperm and egg release
    • epidemic spawning-(mussels) domino effect of spawning 
    • Mass spawning- ( coral) many species spawn in one night 
    • Timing of spawning-happens during times of quiet water to maximize fertilization rate ( seaweeds)
  12. Dispersion vs. migration
    undirectional  vs. specific and directed
  13. Migration scheme
    • Nursing area
    • Adult Stock 
    • Spawning Area 
    • Movement back and forth between adult stock and spawning area
  14. Migration Types (-Dromous)
    • anadromous- lives in salt water but spawns in fresh water.
    • catandromous-fish live in fresh water but spawn in salt water. Happens close to the equator
    • Diaadromous - migrate between sea water and freshwater
  15. Migration of eel
    Make long distance travel but due to pangea when continents were a lot  closer to each other.
  16. Botrylluw schlosseri
    • tadpole larva
    • lecithtrophic larva
  17. Cynmatium parthenopetum
    plantotrophic larva
  18. Dispersal of Benthic species(3)
    • Planktotrophic 
    • Lecithrotropic 
    • direct release
  19. Plaqntotrophic release
    • female has large amount of released eggs
    • larvae feed on the plankton 
    • there is a long dispersal time
  20. llecithotropic release
    • females release less eggs 
    • larvae live on the yoke 
    • short dispersal time
  21. direct release
    female lay egg or broods young and they released and crawl away
  22. Issue for the release of gametes( larvae)
    • Moved by the ways 
    • self-seeding eddies
    • Larvae rise to the flooding tide 
    • they sink to the ebbing tide . This lead to the retention of larvae within estuaries
  23. Salt marsch creeks
    inportant for nutrients
  24. lithotrina neritoides
    • geotaxis and photo taxis 
    • gastropod
  25. Emerita
    • swash ruider
    • move up and down wate colum
    • they burriow to escape being washed back
  26. Blue crab
    Callineectes sapidus
  27. Estuary larval adaption
    larvae move to the coastal water but return in later stage
  28. Settling problems for Planktonic Larvae
    • Presetting problems include:Starvation, predation, and loss of right habitat
    • Post-settling problems: Predation, crowding, energy costs of metamorphism
  29. semibalamus balanoides
    Acorn barnacle
  30. Two scaled of larval dispersal and settlement
    • Large scale
    • small scale movement to take advantage of seasonal release, settlement and currents
    • Small scale
    • negative phototaxis, timing, near cues,
  31. Essay question: Zonation and Succession
    • Is the shoreline moved seaward over time so would the zones over time
    • Important in designing effective restoration of dunes
  32. Dunes
    • Hill of sand built by wind or the flow of water 
    • Serve important function in protecting inland areas from coastal water intrusion 
    • Help to protect and block from the destructive forces of wind and storm
  33. universal zones
    • black lichen- cynobacteri and fungi
    • perwinkle-gastropod
    • barnacle
    • seaweed
  34. ZScopimera inflata
    • bubler crab 
    • inflata 
    • gas exchange mambrane on leg
  35. Nertia
    • use cilla to see how far up they wil move
    • they move up and down the water column
  36. wave exposure
    differentiate two zones
  37. Zonation and dunes vegetation sequence
    • different vegetation communities. 
    • Each zone has a different species composition that is related to the ability of the plant to withstand environmental factors that are prevailing in that zones
  38. Physical environmental factors/stressors that lead to zonation of different plant life and animal life
    • sand deposition and burial 
    • salt spray episodes
    • sand movement 
    • wind velocity 
    • sand blasting 
    • human activity
    • variations in exposure and shelter
  39. Low-lying swales
    • causes occasional floodign
    • anoxic conditions 
    • leading to distinct vegetation communities known as dune slack communities
  40. Spinifex and pingao
    • sand trapping and dune forming species 
    • have skills in growth and expansion that make them vital for the rebuilding of eroded dunes
  41. Ground Cover Zone`
    further inland there are vegetation communities with vines, woody plants, herbaceous, and sedges vegetation
  42. Shrub and forest zone
    • dunes gave way further inland to higher vegetation 
    • must take into consideration ecological process because dune restoration may not be successful or require a great amount of maintenance otherwise.
  43. Succession
    • change in species composition within an ecosystem over time 
    • or the evolution of plant community overtime following disruption ( pioneer species take over)
    • each stage of succession cause change int he physical environment so the succession species is better able to adapt to live int he change environment
  44. Timescales
    • Increasing distance landward results in major changes: 
    • vegetation may go through a series of different succession stages  and vegetation communities will change significantly over time. succession recovery could take decades
  45. Restoration
    • Restoration is in fact often defined
    • as the management or purposeful manipulation
    • of succession to restore damaged ecosystems
    • purposeful manipulation of change 
    • s, restoration
    • is more about initiating or accelerating natural
    • successional recovery of native-dominated dune
    • ecosystems rather than restoring a particular
    • dune state
  46. Climax community
    xpressed a biological community of plants, animals, and fungi which, through the process of ecological succession the development of vegetation in an area over time, had reached a steady state.
  47. Chapter 14 The tidelands
    • Zonation- characteristics of rocky shores and had 3D due to burrowing animals and other type of animals that live in the sediment.
    • zones claim to be universal but there are exceptions.
  48. Factors that affect the vertical gradient of zonation
    • Heat stress, desiccation
    • reduced feeding time
    • wave shock  
    • Gas exchange
  49. Sea Urchin presentation
    • Predators: otters and sea stars 
    • prey:algae, kelp,ead fish sponges and mussles.
    • Skeleton called test made of calcium carbonate 
    • Sexually reproduce :Gonopore, Water vascular system, tube feet( allows them to stretch and help with movement)
    • Spines of the sea urchin can be long or short; flower sea urchin are the deadliest of all. 
    • Toxopneustes pileolus
    • some of the spines that release venom can have a fatatl effect such as vomiting, muscle paralysis, burning, and respiratory distress.
    • pedicillaria are the biting jaws 
    • sea urchin eat the kelp and this can be bad fro organism and beaches
    • money making business
    • Red Sea Urchin is the longest living 
    • slow growth results in longevity 
    • could be used in regenerative medicine in order to address of the disease like parkinson's , alzehimer's and heart disease.
  50. Sharks Presentation
    • skin madeof placiodscales 
    • oil liver that aids with buoyancy
    • heart is s-shaped 
    • largest shark are the whale sharks 
    • nurse sharks are bottom dweller 
    • don't have to be in motion 
    • Example of mutualism- fin scooping shark sucker ; removing them 
    • Parasitology-parasite indicate heavy metals( anthobothrium and pararbothrium)
    • Most sharks are loners
    • rhidicon typus - the whale shark ( low levels of genetic difference across major ocean populations) 
    • turtule behavior based on shark density. more shark less dense and less fat turtles and vice versa
    • Spome shark killed for their fins through off the food chain 
    • shark ecotourism results in the increase of the economy.
  51. Marine Iguanas
    • Galapagos island 
    • amblyrhynchus cristatus- marine iguana 
    • are herbeveoes and they eat red and geeen algea
    • adutls feed in the intertidal and 5% dive to the subtidal 
    • anguilloform - type of swimming where the arms are head close to the body and each segment of the body oscillate laterally; undulation.
    • Burst velocity is anaerobic and cruise is the opposite.
    • use little energy foraging; thus high foraging efficiency
    • have ability to shrink based on bone reabsorption; happens tot he females more and this help them to conserve energy.
    • Scope of growth lower in el nino time
    • el nino- uusaally warm nutrient poor water;series of climatic changes.
    • cold blooded ( like me)
    • corticosterone- response to stress and involved in the regulation of the immune system, and energy
    • ecotourism
  52. Kinetic viscosity aand temperature
    As one increases the other decreases
  53. hewrring larva
    • Clupeus harengus
    • cost less to swim at a higher temperature 
    • amplitude of tail beating decreasin in cool water with increased kinetic viscosity
  54. Life in a fluid Medium
    • density
    • kinetic viscosity 
    • dynamic viscosity
  55. Reynolds number
    • measure of the relative importance of the viscosity and inertia forces in the fluid 
    • increase with velocity and size
    • large animals have larger Re's
    • >100 inertia force dominated 
    • <1 viscosity predominates 
    • large animals have the ability to coast through the water because they have a high inertial force 
    • small animal are usually stop the minute that they stop working to move.
  56. Synalpheus regalis
    Shrimp that live in sponge
  57. Abalone Halistis
    • gastropod mollusc
    • receptor protein from eggs and show that small changes in aa help for sprrm to bind to the egg
  58. Laminar
    • parallel flow of stream 
    • like plating card slipping pat each other
  59. Turbulent
    • streamline is irregular and chaotic 
    • happen when Re increase, velcoity increases, diameter increase, and fluid density increases
  60. No slip condition
    • at the surface of the water the velocity is 0
    • above the surface seems to be flowing at a mainstream velocity
  61. Principles of continuity
    • what goesin must come out 
    • v is inversely proportional to the cross section of the pipe
    • e.g. double the diameter; half the speed 
    • continuity equation
  62. Choanocytes
    • cells within the sponge 
    • cross-sectional are of the choanocytes is much larger than the cross sectional are of the exit curren thus water move through the exit much faster than through the choanocyte
  63. pressure vs. velcoity
    • inverse relationship
    • pressure gradient can be generated by different velocity
    • e.g. a wing is curved at the top thus the air travel faster on the top and the pressure is lower at the top
  64. Drag
    • Pressure difference up and downstream of an object
    • shape of the marine animal change the pressure drag
  65. Sessile form
    • How to reduce drag
    • flexibility growth 
    • strengthen body 
    • side orientation
  66. Escape from marine farm paper
    • cobia that were growin in farm escape and go into pacific where they are not natiuve
    • domesticated fish mate with the wildfish of the species and this could weaken the wild population; could also eat or replace wild fish'; bother other species ; competing and eating wild fish; harsh physical environemnt, predators,  and boat attacks
    • everything gets to survive
    •  the risky salmon
    • wild salmon don't have a high lifetime success rate
    • recapturing fish after they escape
    • Government improved the marine aquaculture standard and the amount of escapees have decreased dramatically
    • large monetary expense to address the escape events 
    • Creating fish with three chromosomes so they are sterile
  67. fisheries
    • source of protein 
    • use of industrial methods for colleting fish 
    • pout pressure on fish populations to the point of extinction 
    • do not want to overexploit
  68. Stock
    • biological stand point of tock - populations that are geographically definable and respond to similar environment factors.
    • social/ Political standpoint- east-coat states have artificial boundaries. have to understand how big it is, migration, size, and nursery, keep track 0
  69. Id of the Stock
    • Tags
    • biochemical and molecular markers( extract substance from fish and see how it is genetically isolated or distinct from another stock); use of DNA and an agarose gel.
    • ID is importatn or making rules and regulationssolve disputes
  70. morone saxatilis
    striped base
  71. Stock size
    • measure the landing to estimate stock size yearly
    • fishing effort, spatial variability of fish, population size= landing
  72. fishing effort
    • number of boats 
    • type of gear
    • hours per fishers per time 
    • fuel consumption
  73. Crucial life history info
    • mortality rate
    • nursing and feeding areas
    • scope for growth ( physiiological limiting factors)
    • come up with a model to predict the state of the fish
  74. otolith
    • helps to keep track of the age of a fish 
    • it is a bone 
    • chemical in bone will give idea of where the fish had been and these can be found int he otolith
  75. Biomass of Stock
    • change according to last year
    • mortality rate
    • growth proportion
    • reproduction proportion
    • helps us to come up with regulation base on model
  76. Recruitment
    • newly born that enter and are notice in the first year 
    • there is a limit to recruitment because after a point due to the maximum point there is no more resource ther is no positive scope for growth, the shrink, not enough gametes, etc.
  77. carrying capacity
    • the most fish that we can have at the moment 
    • at half the carrying capacity the stock size is at its maximum
  78. Fishing Techniques
    • hooks ( long lining)
    • nets
    • traps
    • regulate size of net and size of the boat
  79. Bycatch
    • unintended fish that is caught with the intended 
    • they are not commercially viable
  80. Stock Reduction factors
    • enivormnmental change 
    • random factor (  human activity )
    • overfishing
  81. what makes a species vulnerable ?
    • long generation times 
    • low fecundity 
    • confined 
    • easily caught
  82. Alaska
  83. ways of catching salmon
    • purse seine- circle salmon and slowly let out the net
    • trolling- slowing polling net through the water
    • drift gill net- fish cant see it, only head get through and the fish is stuck
  84. hatchery salmon
    • still considered wild 
    • cut out the gonads of salmon and fertilize them
  85. How to prevent over-harvesting and the factors negatively affecting fishery stocks?
    • economic perspective
    • biological perspective
  86. Protein sequences in Abalone eggs
    They looked at six subspecies of abalone
  87. Aerenchyma
    allow spartina to exchange gases with anoxic soil
  88. Pandalus jordani
    • jumbo shrimp
    • go from male to female
  89. epinephelusm morio
    • red grouper
    • protogyny from female to male
  90. Synalpheus Regalis
    • shrimp that live in sponges 
    • eusocial: division of labor care for young and overlapping generations
    • older shrimp recognized the foreigner 
    • older have mrore conact with foreigners

    cooperative car for young peo
  91. simultaneous hermaphrodism
    acorn barnacle
  92. sequencial hermaphrodites
    slug( c. fornicata)
  93. anadromous (fresh to salt)
    callincetus sapidus ( blue crab)
  94. catadromous
    • migrate to sagassum
    • anguilla
    • rostrata
  95. Resource allocation
    • different niches that are creates 
    • live in on place
    • spawn place 
    • dispersal and migration based on resources
  96. module advantages
    • no comp
    • kin selction- make sure genome moves on 
    • eusociality 
    • resitance 
    • less comp
    • need stable environment ( entire ocean)
    • example: synapheus regalis
  97. epidemic tend to happen in mussles
  98. mass spawning
  99. tim spawing
  100. corals
    • spawn half moon ( low tide)
    • can regrow
    • epicenter of larvae releae helped the dispersal 
    • coral settlement less as you got further way from center
  101. estuaries of crabs
    • flood tide to freshwater so crab likey
    • ebhy opposite
  102. Golfingia gouldi
    • swells fresh shrink salt
    • exp of osmitoc pressure
  103. salinity
    • ion reg
    • cell voulme
  104. ion reg
    • thing with exo
    • crabs
  105. cell volume reg
    • free amino acids used as ions 
    • bigger need more cell volum reg
  106. gill
    • more water
    • more concentrated pee
  107. light
    • more absorbance of λ when we go down
    • pressure
    • naviagation
    • allow detection of prey pred.
    • plankton uses area that available to them
  108. Secchi disk
    • through down to see how clear 
    • cant see anymore means to odeep
Card Set
Marine Biology
Reproduction, dunes, Marshes and Beaches