Animal Hormones part 1

  1. cells that secrete chemical signals (such as hormones)
    endocrine cells

    Some endocrine cells exist as single cells (e.g. in digestive tract)

    (page 4 on slide)
  2. cells that have receptors for the chemical signals (hormones)
    target cells

    Circulating hormones diffuse into the blood and can activate target cells far from the site of release

    (page 4 on slide)
  3. __ signals affect only target cells near the site of release

    (page 5 on slide)
  4. __ signals affect the cells that released the signal

    (page 5 on slide)
  5. secretory organs composed of aggregations of endocrine cells which secrete signals into the extracellular fluid
    endocrine glands
  6. have ducts that carry their signals to the outside of the body or a body cavity. (sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, liver, pancreas)
    exocrine glands
  7. chemical signals released into the environment
  8. 3 chemical groups of hormones
    • peptides or proteins
    • steroids
    • amines
  9. hormones that are water-soluble & are transported in blood with receptors on cell surfaces
    peptides or proteins
  10. hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol & are lipid-soluble

    must be bound to carrier proteins to be carried in blood
  11. hormones that are derivatives of tyrosine (NE, epinephrine, T3, T4)
  12. Lipid soluble hormones have receptors __ the cell

    (cytoplasmic receptors)

    (page 13 on slide)
  13. Water-soluble hormones have receptors __ the cell

    cannot readily pass the cell membrane

    (page 13 on slide)
  14. One hormone can trigger __
    different responses in different types of cells.

    ex. epinephrine for the fight-or-flight response. Epinephrine binds to receptors in the heart, blood vessels, liver, and fat cells.
  15. The __ gland is attached to the hypothalamus.

    connects the nervous & endocrine systems
  16. The __ contains blood capillaries known as the portal system.
    anterior pituitary

    (page 16 & 19 on slide)
  17. The __ contains axon tracts going though the infundibulum from the hypothalamus.
    posterior pituitary

    (page 16 & 19 on slide)
  18. Paraventricular nucleus: Projections to the posterior pituitary release __ & __
    • oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions, milk flow, promotes bonding;
    • ADH: serves to increase the water retained by the kidneys when necessary
  19. Paraventricular nucleus: Projections towards the anterior pituitary release __ & __
    thyrotropin releasing hormone; corticotropin releasing hormone
  20. The arcuate nucleus releases __
    growth hormone-releasing hormone
  21. The luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone are released from the __ hormone from the hypothalamus
  22. The anterior pituitary secretes 4 hormones that act as tropic hormones & control other endocrine glands:
    • Thyrotropin (Thyroid Stimulating hormone)
    • Luteinizing hormone
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone
    • Corticotropin (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

    (page 27 on slide)
Card Set
Animal Hormones part 1
Week 6