Psych Emotion and Motivation

  1. emotion
    a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
  2. James-Lange Theory
    the theory that a physiological stimulus produces an emotional experience in the brain
  3. Cannon-Bard-Theory
    a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain
  4. two-factor theory
    emotional stimuli elicit arousal and then interpret the causes of arousal to determine emotion
  5. appraisal
    an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus
  6. emotion regulation
    the strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience
  7. reappraisal
    changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion-eliciting stimulus
  8. emotional expression
    an observable sign of an emotional state
  9. universal hypothesis
    emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone
  10. facial feedback hypothesis
    emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify
  11. display rule
    a norm for the appropriate expression of emotion
  12. motivation
    the purpose for or psychological cause of an action
  13. drive
    an internal state that signals physiological need
  14. bulima nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
  15. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe of food intake
  16. intrinsic motivation
    a motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding
  17. extrinsic motivation
    a motivation to take actions that lead to reward
  18. conscious motivation
    motivations of which people are aware
  19. unconscious motivation
    motivations of which people are unaware
  20. need for achievement
    the motivation to solve worthwhile problems
  21. approach motivations
    a motivation to experience a positive outcome
  22. avoidance motivation
    a motivation not to experience a negative outcome
  23. terror management theory
    a theory about how people respond to knowledge of their own mortality
  24. instinct theory of motivation
    our behavior is hard wired
  25. drive-reduction theory of motivation
    Clark hall-all living organism have biological needs
  26. what is drive derived from
  27. arousal theory of motivation
    we are motivated to maintain an optimum level of arousal
  28. Expectancy theory of motivation
    our behavior is motivated by expected outcomes
  29. what did Abraham Maslow propose
    hierarchy of needs
  30. Hierarchy of Needs
    Different needs that individuals have, some needs take precedent
  31. hierarchy of needs list
    top to bottom: self-actualization needs, aesthetic, cognitive needs, esteem, belongingness, safety needs, physiological needs
  32. Primary Drives-peripheral factors
    • Cannon and Washburn- the role of the stomach 
    • other signals(Templten and Quicken)-glucose, ghrelin, leptin-secreted by fat cells.
  33. Brain processes involved in hunger primary drive
    • lateral hypothalamus-feeding center; signal to start eating naturally
    • Ventromedial hypothalamus-satiety center, stop eating
  34. External and Cognitive Factors involved in hunger
    • Externality Hypothesis-overweight people are motivated by external rather than internal factors
    • Ex:popcorn(Wansink), effects of taste
    • Presence of others-eat more in social situations
    • Variety of choice
    • Disinhibition in restrained vs unrestrained eaters
  35. Sexual cycle
    Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
  36. brain factors in homosexuality
    hypothalamus and anterior, commisure
  37. prenatal/ factors in homosexuality
    stress, and uterus, and genetics
  38. What doesn't cause homosexuality
    • being raised by gay or lesbian parents
    • domineering mother and weak father
  39. achievement motivation
    the desire to accomplish something
  40. intrinsic motivation
    comes from within oneself
  41. extrinsic motivation
    outside factors
  42. who thought of two-factor theory
    • Schachter and Singer
    • Epinephrine informed and uninformed groups exposed to happy and anger conditions
    • Informed have no change in emotional state
    • Uninformed angry when spending time with angry people; happy when spending time with happy people
  43. Facial Feedback Theory
    Signals from the face provide cues to emotional experience
  44. what did Strack study?
    Facial Feedback Theory- comics rated as funnier when pencil held between teeth
  45. what did Laird study?
    Laird- facial feedback theory, posed expressions associated with changes in emotion
  46. what did Ekman and Davidson study?
    facial feedback theory-posed expressions associated with changes in cerebral activation
  47. Study about Botox injection
    lead to reductions in depression
  48. Basic emotions?
    • emerge early
    • nearly universal
    • Ex: happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear
  49. Cultural differences in display rules
    • japanese and american college students shown disgusting films
    • Native japanese show no emotion when watching films with authority figures present
  50. Emergence of emotion in infants
    • present at birth: disgust, distress, interest
    • 2-4 months: happiness, surprise
    • 7-9 months: fear, sadness, anger
  51. Biological bases for emotion
    • sodium amytal studies on brain hemispheres
    • Left inactivation-catastrophic reaction
    • Right inactivation- euphoria or indifference
  52. What did Richard J Davidson study
    • asymmetry in response to emotional activation
    • -Fear and disgust produce right frontal activation
    • -Happiness produces left frontal activation
  53. Left anterior of emotion
    approach related emotions-interest, happiness, anger
  54. right anterior with emotion
    withdrawal related emotions-fear, disgust
  55. What is sadness
    not withdrawal but rather lack of approach
  56. sodium amytal studies
    • left inactivation-catastrophic reaction
    • right inactivation- euphoria or indiference
  57. what did Dimond and Farrington Study?
    restricted visual field
  58. what does frontal asymmetry predict
    emotional responsiveness
  59. benefits of emotional intelligence
    • delay of gratification
    • more self-reliant
    • handle stress and frustration
    • better SAT scores
  60. issues with over control of emotion
    interferes with memory for emotional events
  61. Opponent Process theory
    emotional stimuli elicit primary and secondary processes
  62. what is the secondary process for stimuli and emotion
    CNS maintains homeostasis
Card Set
Psych Emotion and Motivation