IB 139 Lec 12 Hippocampus, Amygdala, Fear, Memory

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    • Can try to see if it dissolves in water; ACTH would, corticosterone wouldn't
    • Can add cort to it to see if more cort is produced (ACTH) or if nothing happens (cort)
  3. How does stress affect hippocampal plasticity at CA3?
    • Increase GC
    • Decrease BDNF
    • Leads to atrophy or death
  4. How do antidepressants affect hippocampal plasticity at CA3?
    • Increase NE and 5-HT
    • Increase BDNF
    • Leads to increased survival and growth
  5. How does stress affect hippocampal plasticity at the granule cell?
    • Increase GC
    • Decrease BDNF
    • Leads to decreased neurogenesis
  6. How do antidepressants affect hippocampal plasticity at the granule cell?
    • Increase NE and 5-HT
    • Increase BDNF
    • Leads to increased neurogenesis
  7. Increased vulnerability resulting from genetic and environmental factors can lead to what?
    • Atrophy or death
    • Decreased neurogenesis
  8. What up-regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis?
    • Environmental enrichment
    • Learning
    • Physical exercise
    • Anti-depressants
  9. What down-regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis?
    • Aging
    • Jetlag
    • Stress
    • GC's
  10. What kinds of stresses suppress adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus?
    • Predator odor
    • Restraint stress
    • Electric shock
    • Social stress
    • Maternal deprivation
    • Forced swimming
    • Forced exercise
    • Sleep deprivation
  11. How do pharmacological antidepressants affect adult neurogenesis?
    • Block GCs-induced decrease in adult neurogenesis
    • Block GCs-induced LTP suppression in the hippocampus
    • Block GCs-induced dendrite reorganization
  12. How does physical exercise affect adult neurogenesis?
    Block GCs-induced decrease in adult neurogenesis
  13. What are the 3 stages of stem cell activity?
    • Proliferation
    • Differentiation
    • Survival
  14. Is all stress the same?
    Nah
  15. What does the graph look like for any kind of performance vs. stress severity and/or duration?
    Upside down U
  16. What kind of stress increases neurogenesis?
    • Optimal stress
    • Challenge
  17. What kind of stress decreases neurogenesis?
    Chronic/high stress
  18. What is the contextual fear extinction paradigm?
    • Get a mouse, habituate it to a box
    • Shock its foot and train it to fear some kind of association, like a sound
    • Then play sound over and over until it realizes that there's no foot shock
    • Eventually fear will somewhat go away
  19. Exposure to what protects against future stressors?
    Acute moderate stress
  20. Severe stress increases what in the rat hippocampus?
    Oligodendrocytes
  21. What part of the brain is responsible for emotional memory?
    Amygdala (basolateral)
  22. What is the direction of GC's influence on memory dependent on?
    • Duration
    • Dose of GC's
    • Brain structure affected
  23. How does GC improve memory consolidation?
    • Infusion into the amygdala (Through NE effect in BLA)
    • Administration immediately post-training
  24. How does GC impair memory?
    Administration prior to training
  25. What does a lesion of the BLA region of the amygdala do?
    • Abollish the effect of high circulating levels of cort
    • Reduces activation of new neurons
  26. What affects neurogenesis in the hippocampus and creates the connection between certain memories and emotions?
    Fear
  27. What is the amygdala involved in?
    • Emotional processing
    • Fear
    • Arousal
  28. Describe the flow of info through the neural circuitry of the amygdala
    • Emotional stimulus
    • Thalamus
    • Sensory cortex
    • Association cortex (cingulate gyrus)
    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
    • Hypothalamus
    • HPA or SNS
  29. What are the inputs into the amygdala?
    • Thalamus
    • Anterior cingulate cortex
    • Hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
  30. What are the outputs of the amygdala?
    • PFC (regulation)
    • Association cortex (cognition)
    • Striatum (instinctive actions)
    • Dorsal vagus (parasym NS)
    • Hypothalamus??? (PVN, activates HPA)
    • Modulatory system (NE, ACh, serotonin) (arousal)
  31. Direct projects from the PFC to the amygdala activate what kind of neurons?
    • Inhibitory
    • Inhibits fear output of amygdala
  32. What kind of experiment could you make to study what the amygdala does?
    • fMRI to see activity when viewing facial expressions
    • Gain of function using optogenetics, electrical stimulation, irritative lesions, etc.
    • Loss of function with destructive lesions
Author
Mursizzle
ID
325565
Card Set
IB 139 Lec 12 Hippocampus, Amygdala, Fear, Memory
Description
IB 139 Lec 12 Hippocampus, Amygdala, Fear, Memory
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