Circulatory Systems

  1. Some animals like ______-_____ organisms don't need circulatory system state and exchange ______ with the environment. Structures and body shapes allow exchange between _____ and the _______. ________ systems bring the external environment inside the animal for example _______.
    • single celled organisms
    • directly 
    • cells and the envrionment
    • Gastrovascular systems
    • sponges
  2. Larger animals must use _______ systems to deliver ________ and remove _______. Cells are supported by _________ fluid for ______ delivery and ______ removal.
    • circulatory
    • nutrients 
    • waste 
    • extracellular fluid 
    • nutrient 
    • waste
  3. Two types of circulatory systems
    open and closed circulatory systems
  4. A circulatory system consists of (3)?

    Together those parts are more familiarly called the ________ _______
    • muscular pump (heart)
    • fluid (blood)
    • series of conduits (blood vessels)

    cardiovascular system
  5. What type of circulatory systems are found in arthopods and mollusks
    Open circulatory system
  6. Open circulatory system for arthopods and mollusks (mini-story) (3)
    • A pump (heart) moves hemolymph through vessels.
    • Fluid leaves vessels and passes by cells.
    • Fluid returns to the heart through openings with valves—ostia.
  7. Function of extracellular fluid in an open circulatory system (mini-story) (2)
    • Combines with the fluid of the circulatory system— hemolymph
    • Fluid leaves circulatory system and moves between cells then returns to be pumped again
  8. Extracellular fluid in a closed circulatory system refers to fluid _____ the circulatory system and _____ it. Fluid in the circulatory system is called ______ ______. Fluid around cells is _______ fluid
    • inside 
    • outside
    • blood plasma 
    • insterstitial fluid
  9. In a closed circulatory system, _____ is kept separate from the _______ ____. ______ is pumped through the ________ system by one or more ______.
    • blood 
    • insterstitial fluid
    • Blood
    • vascular system
    • hearts
  10. What two circulatory circuits have evolved:
    • Pulmonary circuit
    • System circuit
  11. pulmonary circuit
    blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs and back again
  12. systemic circuit
    blood travels from the heart to the rest of the body and back to the heart
  13. Closed vascular system is made up of: (3)
    • Arteries 
    • Capillaries 
    • Venules
  14. In closed vascular systems, arteries carry blood ____ ____ the heart and branch into ______ that feed the _______ ____. Capillaries are the site of exchange between _____ and _____ _____. Venules drain the _______ _____ and form _____ that carry blood _____ ____ heart. (some of these are cheap)
    • away from 
    • arterioles 
    • capillary beds 
    • blood & tissue fluid
    • capillary beds 
    • veins 
    • toward the
  15. Birds and mammals have ______-_______ hearts and separate ______ & ______ circuits. Name 3 advantages this comes with.
    • four-chambered hearts
    • pulmonary & systemic circuits 

    • Systemic circuit always receives blood with higher O2 content
    • Gas exchange is maximized
    • Circuits can operate at different pressures
  16. The human heart has _____ chambers, two ____ and two _______. The _____ ______ pumps blood through the pulmonary circuit, while the _____ _____ pumps blood through the ______ circuit.
    • four
    • atria
    • ventricles
    • right ventricles 
    • left ventricles 
    • systemic circuit
  17. The three valves of the human heart are the:
    • Atrioventricular (AV) valves 
    • Pulmonary valve 
    • Aortic valve
  18. The AV valves lies between the _____ and _______ and prevents _____ when the _____ contract.
    • atria & ventricles
    • backflow
    • ventricles
  19. The pulmonary valve and aortic valve lie between the _______ and _____ ______ and prevent ______ when the ______ relax
    • ventricles & major arteries
    • backflow
    • ventricles
  20. The right atrium receives ________ blood from the body through large ______ called the ______ ____ _____ and _____ ____ ____
    • deoxygenated blood 
    • veins 
    • superior vena cava
    • inferior vena cava
  21. Superior vena cava supplies blood from the _____ body while the inferior vena cava supplies blood from the _____ body
    • upper body 
    • lower body
  22. Heart Flow Pt 1:
    Blood passes from the right atrium through an _____ valve into the ____ _____ (mostly through passive flow). The  ______ contracts (adding a little more blood to the _____), then the ______ contracts. The ____ ____ closes and blood is pumped through the ______ ______ to the _____.
    • AV valve
    • right ventricle 
    • atrium 
    • ventricle
    • ventricles
    • AV Valve
    • pulmonary artery
    • lungs
  23. Heart flow pt 2:
    ______ blood returns to the ____ _____ of the heart through the _______ _____. The ______ fills as blood enters through an ____ _____ (mostly passive flow). The _____ _____ contracts (further filling the _____), then the _____ ______ opens and blood circulates through the ____.
    • Oxygenated
    • left atrium
    • pulmonary veins 
    • ventricle 
    • AV valve 
    • left atrium 
    • ventricle 
    • Aortic valve 
    • aorta
  24. In the ______ _____ both sides of the heart contract _______. First the two ______ contract then the two ______ contract.
    • cardiac cycle
    • simultaneously
    • atria 
    • ventricles
  25. Systole 

    Diastole
    • Sytole: When the ventricles contract simultaneously 
    • Diastole: When the ventricles relax simultaneously
  26. Cardiac muscles functions as a _____.
    pump
  27. Cardiac muscle cells are in ______ contact with each other through ____ _____ which leads to the spread of _____ _____that stimulate _____ _____
    • electrical contact
    • gap junctions
    • action potentials
    • simultaneous contraction
  28. Some cells are pacemaker cells and can initiate _______ ______ without input from the _____ ____
    • action potentials 
    • nervous system
  29. The primary pacemaker cells are the _______ _____. The ______ _____ ______ of these cells is less negative and not ______ so that cells ______ reach threshold. Action potentials are ______ and ______ to return to ______ ______.
    • Sinoatrial node (SA node)
    • resting membrane potential
    • stable 
    • gradually 
    • broader & slower
    • resting potential
  30. The nervous system controls heart rate by influencing _______ ______
    resting potential
  31. How the nervous system controls heart rate by using Norep. to influence resting potential (mini-story) (2)
    • Norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves increases permeability of Na+/K+ and Ca2+ channels
    • The resting potential rises more quickly and action potentials are closer together
  32. How the nervous system controls heart rate by using ACh. to influence resting potential (mini-story) (2) *note that it is the opposite effect
    • Acetylcholine from parasympathetic nerves increases permeability of K+ and decreases that of Ca2+ channels
    • The resting potential rises more slowly and action potentials are farther apart
  33. Heart muscle contraction is coordinated. An action potential is generated in the _______ _____.  The ______ ______ spreads through the ____ ______ in the _____ and they contract together, but it does not spread to the _______
    • Sinoatrial node
    • action potential
    • gap junctions
    • atria
    • ventricles
Author
chikeokjr
ID
325492
Card Set
Circulatory Systems
Description
Slides
Updated