Propionibacterium is used in the fermentation process that produces Swiss cheese. The characteristic flavor of this cheese is due to the ____, and the holes in the cheese are due to the ____ produced.
The symbiotic relationship between the obligate proton reducers and the hydrogen utilizers is called a _______association. It is also called interspecies hydrogen transfer.
Most fermenting bacteria make most or all of their ATP via ____ ____ ____, and they create a Dp (needed for solute transport, motility, etc) by reversing the membrane-bound
substrate level phosphorylation
All the bacteria can do aerobic respiration. (T/F)
Fermentation is very efficient for making ATP. (T/F)
The H2 gas can be sometimes a fermentation product. (T/F)
Bacteria prefer fermentation to anaerobic respiration. (T/F)
Bacteria make only one fermentation product at a given time. (T/F)
Fermentation happens in the cell membrane as well as in the cytosol. (T/F)
Bacteria do fermentation for making NADH as well as ATP. 2NADH, byproduct…bacteria whether make ATP, fermentation is to make ATP without NADH (T/F)
EF-G is responsible for chain translocation during peptide synthesis. What is the energy source for this process?
Messenger RNAs are translated by several ribosomes (typically around 50) in series and the complex ribosomes attached to an mRNA is a _____.
In bacteria, several genes can be transcribed into a single mRNA. How do you call a cluster of such co-transcribed genes?
_____ refers to the phenomenon in ploycistronic mRNAs in which a block in the translation of an upstream gene can prevent transcription of a downstream gene.
. In the process of protein synthesis,____ are responsible for placing the correct amino acids into the polypeptide sequence. For this reason, ___ are called adaptor molecules.
Transcriptional activators bind to specific sites in the DNA _____ of the RNA polymerase and make contact with the RNA polymerase while enhancing its activity. Repressors bind _____ of the RNA polymerase (in the operator region) and block progression of the RNA polymerase.
All the operons regulated by a single transcriptional factor are collectively called a ____
An operon consists of two or more genes that are co-transcribed into a ______ mRNA from a single promoter at the beginning of the first gene
A sigma factor is responsible for recognition of certain promoter(s). Sometimes bacteria need to regulate the activities of sigma factors. One way that bacteria control the activities of its sigma factors is by using _____ that bind to them and inhibit their activity.
Factor-independent termination of RNA polymerase action ____ occurs just after the RNA polymerase transcribes a self-______ sequence of bases
Transcription initiation takes place at the ____ site. Within the _____ region, there are two critical sties for transcription to occur: -10 and -35 regions.
Transcription is to make RNA from DNA. There are three stages in transcription. What are those?
Initiation, Elongation, Termination
In order for a transcriptional activator to work, the interaction between the protein and RNA polymerase is a must. (T/F)
Transcriptional activator helps RNA polymerase to transcribe and repressor inhibits RNA polymerase from transcription. (T/F)
Sigma factor of RNA polymerase is required to recognize a promoter. In a bacterium, there is only one sigma factor. (T/F)
Transcription is carried out by RNA polymerase. (T/F)
A tRNA should be able to recognize both amino acid and a codon present in mRNA. (T/F)
Since there are 20 different amino acids, the total number for the type of tRNAs is 20. (T/F)
Peptide bond formation is catalyzed by a peptidyltransferase in the ribosome. Such activity is in an RNA, not in a protein. (T/F)
In the mRNA sequence, there is a site that ribosome preferentially binds. (T/F)
If you have an mRNA the size of which is 300 bp, then you will have a protein the size of which is 100 amino acids. (T/F)
If you are able to see the sequences of all the proteins inside a bacterium, you will find always methionine at the N-termini of all those proteins. (T/F)
The site of septum formation for bacterial cell division is determined by two separate systems called ____ ____ and ____
Nucleoid Occlusion, Min
A single cell that has 30-min doubling time will become ___ cells after 2 hrs.
24 = 16 (120/30)
A single cell will become ____ cells after 10 generations.
210 = 1024
Several of the cell division genes are called fts genes, and fts stands for ____ ____ ____ phenotypes
filamentous temperature sensitive
Preferential growth on one carbon source before growth on a second carbon source is called ____ growth
Growth in batch bacterial culture can progress through a ___ and ___ to ____ phase.
lag, log, stationary
In the chemostat the concentration of the limiting nutrient in the reservoir is kept very ____ so that growth is limited by the availability of the nutrient.
The most commonly used measurements of growth are ___, ____ cell counts, and ___ weight measurement.
living, viable, dry
When bacterial cells sense amino acid starvation inside the cell (of course because of lack of food outside), the cells should not make ribosomes at the expense of energy. So, there must be a ribosome regulation mechanism in the bacterial cells. (T/F)
Faster growing bacterial cells are bigger compared to slower growing counterparts. (T/F)
Bacterial ribosomes can change the rate of protein synthesis in response to growth situation. (T/F)
Cells entering stationary phase become more resistance to environmental stresses such as high temperature, osmotic stress, and certain chemicals. (T/F)
Under overwhelming environmental stresses (such as heat, osmotic stress), bacterial become less active. (T/F)
Most bacteria can be cultured in the laboratory. (T/F)
Most bacteria divide by fission. (T/F)
The advantages of a multienzyme complex in the cytosol is that it facilitates the _____ of metabolites, thus increasing the efficiency of catalysis.
channeling, example pyro
Swimming bacteria are capable of _____ responses
Bacteria excrete enzymes outside of their cells to build either cell wall structure or outer membrane structure. (T/F)
False, Enzymes needed to break down food.
Bacteria have nuclei. (T/F)
16s rRNA which has been used for phylogeny is one component of ribosome. (T/F)
LPS is anchored at cell membrane. (T/F)
False, its located on the outer membrane
In many cases, LPS has important role in pathogens' virulence, so one of its components is often called O antigen(s). (T/F)
Gram-positive cell wall is thicker than Gram-negative counterpart and this is the basis for Gram staining. (T/F)
Bacterial swimming and swarming involve movement. However, swimming is for individual one and swarming is for the movement of a population. (T/F)
Bacterial pili are anchored at cell membrane. (T/F)
Bacterial flagella are anchored at outer membrane. (T/F)
Bacterial flagella use proton potential for its energy source. (T/F)
There are three characterized CO2 fixation pathways used for autotrophic growth. The Calvin cycle is the only one in the ___ biosphere
In methanogens, methyl coenzyme M reductase catalyzes the final step for CH4 generation. For this reaction, the enzyme requires coenzyme F430, which is a _____-tetrapyrrole H2 gas is used by methanogens to fix CO2 (all gas molecules) co-bounded to enzyme to trap to gas, prosethic group is hung on.
In CO2 fixing bacteria using the acetyl-CoA pathway, this enzyme is crucial because it is capable of reducing CO2 to the level of carbon monoxide and catalyzing its condensation with bound methyl and CoA to form acetyl-CoA. This enzyme is _______.
carbon monoxide dehydrogenase
Many aerobic bacteria can grow on C1 compounds other than CO2. These bacteria are called _____.
70% of the atmospheric methane on earth is produced by _____.
Three prokaryotic CO2 fixation mechanisms are ____ cycle, the _____ pathway, and ___ ____ ____ pathway.
Calvin, acetyl CoA, reductive tricarboxylic acid
Bacteria do fermentation in order to grow on methane (methane is a fermentation by product). (T/F)
Bacteria do CO2 assimilation for energy generation. (T/F)
Only archaea can grow on C1 compounds such as methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formate methylamine. (T/F)
Only bacteria can do CO2 fixation. (T/F)
Among all lives on earth, only archaea can produce methane. (T/F)
CO2 can be used for energy generation by acting as an electron acceptor, but not electron donor. (T/F)
Mutations in the dnaQ (mutD) gene, which codes for a ______ subunit in the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, result in greatly increased rates of spontaneous mutations.
In E. coli the two replication forks that begin at _____ and polymerize bi-directionally stop in a region of the chromosome opposite _____, called _____, the termination region.
Ori C, Ori C, Ter
During DNA replication, you will find several copies of short DNA fragments in the lagging strand, but you don't see such stuff in the leading strand. What is this called?
At the replication fork the DNA templates are _____; that is, one strand is 5' to 3' and the other strand is 3' to 5'.
DNA replication takes place in a DNA-synthesizing "factory" called a ____, which consists of an assemblage of enzymes and proteins that will soon be described.
The DNA in a typical bacterium exists as a covalently closed circle of a right-handed double helix that may be ____ to ____ times longer than the cell.
500, 600 (supercoiling is required)
RNA polymerase prefers some DNA sites for it to bind. (T/F)
In bacteria, every DNA base in the chromosome is transcribed into RNA. (T/F)
Our best friend E. coli is so smart that during DNA replication it can distinguish between original old strand and newly made copy strand. (T/F)
DNA polymerase always elongates DNA in 5' --> 3' direction. (T/F)
DNA polymerase always requires a small RNA or DNA (termed primer) to initiate chain elongation. (T/F)
The chromosomes of most bacteria are circular. (T/F)
Mutations in DNA always lead to a change in phenotype. T/F