Chapter 7: Hematopoiesis

  1. what is the difference and significance of fetal hemoglobin (HbgF) from adult hemoglobin
    • fetal hemoglobin has a higher oxygen capacity than adult hemoglobin. 
    • able to take in oxygen more efficiently than adult in order to feed the baby the correct nutrients
  2. name and describe the site of hematopoeisis the three phases of hematopoetic development
    • Mesoblastic phase: yolk sac
    • Hepatic Phase: liver. 2nd trimester
    • Medullary: bone marrow
  3. describe the process and tissues involved of hematopoeisis during the medullary phase
    • occurs within the red marrow of the bone located int he central sinus 
    • cells move from the central sinus to the periheral and are pushed out through the spaces of the compact bone via adventitial cells. This creates the loss of nucleus for red blood cells.
  4. what is the general pattern of red blood cells as they mature?
    • size decrease
    • nucleus condenses
  5. what is the ratio of M:E and significance

    • increased ratio may mean infection
    • decreased ratio may mean normoblastic hyperplasia (overproduction of cells by the organ)
  6. what is normoblastic hyperplasia
    overproduction of cells by the organ
  7. What is the ratio of myeloid cells when individuals age
    as individuals age the ratio would decrease since myeloid cells are replaced by lipids and adipose tissue over time
  8. what are the secondary sites of adult hematopoeisis
    • spleen
    • liver
  9. describe how RBC are pushed out of the one marrow and into circulation
    originates in the central sSinus (a big space): as the RBC matures, they are pushed out of the bone marrow within the central sinus via adventitial cells which contract to trap the RBC nucleus out of the RBC
  10. name the types of cells and tissues formed from hematopoeisis
    • megakaryocytes
    • WBC
    • RBC
  11. what is thrombopoeitin
    production of megakaryocyte
  12. what is leukopoeitin
    production of leukocytes or white blood cells
  13. what is erythropoeitin
    production of RBC
  14. define hypocellular marrow
    more fat cells than myeloid cells
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  16. what type of cells does the bone marrow contain
    • erythrocytes - RBC
    • megakaryocytes - platelets
    • granulocytes - WBC
  17. what are the three functions of the liver
    • produces blood cells during 2nd trimester of fetal development
    • produces all proteins for coagulation
    • produces waste products such as bilirubin from heme degredation which will later mix with bile from the small intestine
  18. what type of cells are in the liver (2)
    • upferr cells: liver macrophages that recycles foreign debris
    • hepatocytes cells
  19. describe extramedullary hematopoeisis
    blood cellls that are produced outside of bone marrow.
  20. where is the spleen located
    in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity. below the ribs
  21. describe the three functions of the spleen
    • removes red blood cell and old platelets via splenic macrophages
    • stores 30% of platelets
    • contains 350-300ml of blood as a reservoir just in case of acute hemolysis
  22. describe the splenic tissue (2)
    • White pulp: contains b-lymphocytes which are able to fight off viruses and bacteria along the periphery. 
    • Red pulp: contains splenic macrophages and reticular fibers which fight off antigens and takes them to the lymphocytes, and maintains structure. Area where the blood comes through the spleen via splenic artery. Located in the center. 
    • Marginal zone: region between  white pulp and  red pulp
  23. describe what type of tissue are in the red pulp
    contains splenic macrophages and reticular fibers which fight off antigens and takes them to the lymphocytes, and maintains structure. Area where the blood comes through the spleen via splenic artery. Located in the center.
  24. lymphoma
    cancer in lymphatic tissue
  25. lymph nodes contain what type of cells
    b lymphocytes and macrophages that remove and destroy unwanted cells
  26. what is metasis
    the traveling of cancer cells across the lymphatic vessels. usually lymph fluid is clear but presence of cancer cells will create a cloudy appearance
  27. how many liters a day does the body cycle lymphatic plasma
    • 3 L
    • 10% of total plasma in the body
  28. lymphocytic leukemia
    a type of cancer where bone marrow makes too much lymphocytes
  29. function of thymus
    distinguishes the good and bad lymphocytes that do not and do self react with body's antigens
  30. what type of specialized cells  mature and are found in the thymus
  31. what type of cells mature and are found in the lymph nodes and bone marrow
  32. what is differentiation caused by
    • cytokines
    • growth factors 
    • interleukins
  33. why is the shape of extramedullary hematocytes different from intramedullary hematocytes
    because interleukins and growth factors originate from the bone marrow, they would produce a odd shape
Card Set
Chapter 7: Hematopoiesis
based on ppt slides