Biog 2: Species Interactions (11)

  1. Diff. between fundamental and realized niche?
  2. Mutualism:
    • two organisms benefit from each other's existence
    • Ex. Scarlet Honeycreeper with flowers that shape its beak
  3. Commensualism:
    1 organism benefits, other doesnt receive negatives

    Ex. Great White and Ramora
  4. Competition:
    mutually negative interaction where fitness is reduced because of the presence of another organism
  5. Intraspecific Competition:
    between members of same species- going for same resources in an ecosystem
  6. Interspecific Competition:
    between different species- competition for resources
  7. Koala eats:
    poisonous baby eucalyptus plant
  8. Carrying Capactity:
    • "K"
    • equilibrium point of birth and death rate
  9. Interference Competition:
    • organisms compete with others attempting to forage, reproduce, or establish in a habitat
    • *this is an important mechanism for plants: Ex. Black walnut tree- produce jugalone chemical- natural herbicide
  10. Resource Exploitation:
    when individuals interfere indirectly by consuming scarce resources (now less available for others)
  11. Gause's Principle:
    • ** Competitive Exclusion Principle- complete competitors cannot coexist. They must differ in their use of resources in some way.
    • Tested with microbes?
  12. Niche/resource partitioning:
    living generally the same, but slightly different- ex: owls eat at night, hawks at day
  13. Predation:
    where predator feeds on prey
  14. Generalist:
    wide range of environmental tolerance
  15. Euryphagous (organisms):
    • broad range of food choice
    • not tied to single location
    • may not eat food that is very nutritious
    • need lots of territory and food to survive
    • Ex. bear- would run out of resources if not euryphagous
  16. Specialist:
    narrow range of environmental tolerance
  17. Stenophagous (organisms):
    • narrow range of food choice
    • choose best food
    • get high return on energy investment
    • limited competition
    • difficulty finding food
  18. Predation can regulate...:
    ecosystems via top-down trophic relationships
  19. Trophic cascades
    cascading disruptions that pass between trophic lvls
  20. Trophic levels:
    different categories of interrelated organisms in the hierarchy of energy transfer within an ecosystem
  21. Keystone species:
    species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance
Card Set
Biog 2: Species Interactions (11)