1. developmental psychology
    the study of continuity and change across the life span
  2. germinal stage
    the 2 week period of prenatal development that begins at conception
  3. embryonic stage
    the period of prenatal development that lasts from the second week until about the eight week
  4. fetal stage
    the period if prenatal that lasts from the ninth week until birth
  5. teratogens
    agents that damage the process of development
  6. Fetal alcohol syndrom
    a developmental disorder caused by heavy alcohol use during pregnancy
  7. infancy
    begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months
  8. motor development
    the emergence of the ability to execute physical action
  9. cephalocaudal rule
    the "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet
  10. proximodistal rule
    the "inside-to outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to periphery
  11. cognitive development
    the emergence of the ability to think and understand
  12. sensorimotor stage
    a stage that begins at birth and lasts through infancy
  13. schemas
    theories about the way the world works
  14. assimilation
    the process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations
  15. accommodation
    the process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information
  16. object permanence
    the belief that objects exist even when they are not visible
  17. childhood
    from 18-24 months to 11-14 yrs
  18. preoperational stage
    stage of cognitive development 2 to 6 yrs, child develops preliminary understanding of the physical world
  19. concrete operational stage
    the stage of development 6 to 11, child learns how actions (operations) can transform the (concrete) objects of the physical world
  20. conservation
    the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance
  21. formal operational stage
    the final stage of cognitive development that begins around the age of 11, child learns to reason about abstract concepts
  22. egocentrism
    the failure to understand that the world appears different to different observers
  23. theory of mind
    the understanding that other people's mental representations guide their behavior
  24. attachment
    an emotional bind with a primary caregiver
  25. temperaments
    characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity
  26. internal working model of relationships
    a set of belief about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relationship between them
  27. preconventional stage
    a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
  28. conventional stage
    stage of moral development, the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
  29. post conventional stage
    a stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
  30. adolescence
    period that begins with onset of sexual maturity 11-14 to 18-21
  31. primary sex characteristics
    bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction
  32. secondary sex characteristics
    bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction
  33. adulthood
    the stage of development that begins 18 to 21 yrs and ends at death
  34. prenatal period
    from conception to birth
  35. ex of teratogens
    alcohol, tobacco, cannabis
  36. effects of tobacco
    • -lower birth weight
    • -80% more likely to have spontaneous abortion
    • -more likely to be obese and overweight
  37. effects of cannabis on babies
    • -low birth weight
    • -premature birth
    • -more likely to end up in neonatal intensive care
  38. effects of caffeine on babies
    • -low birth weight
    • -increased likelihood of anemia¬†
    • -lower iron concentration
    • -makes child jittery and dehydrated
  39. effects of stress on babies
    • -lower birth weight
    • -early delivery
  40. effects of poverty on babies
    -children born to inner city mothers had behavioral and cognitive delays
  41. Costs of prematurity and low birth weight
    • -increased risk of learning disabilities, cerebral palsy, ADHD
    • -2001, hospital costs for premature births 5.8 billion
    • -costs to society for premeis 26.2 billion for first yrs of childs life
    • -early births lead to dyslexia
  42. Childrens physical development
    -doubles in first 5 months
  43. what did jean piaget study
    children's cognitive developments
  44. what don't children understand at sensorimotor stage
    object permanence
  45. what is separation anxiety and when does it occur in babies
    mom and dad exist just not in the room, sensorimotor stage
  46. what do children lack in preoperational stage
  47. what do children have in the preoperational stage
  48. what stage do children begin to understand conservation
    concrete operational stage
  49. what did piaget believe about the cognition development of children
    development comes in stages, but he underestimated when skills emerged
  50. what was Vygotsky model of cognition development
    • -Zones of proximal development
    • -scaffolding
    • -cognitive development was largely the result of the child's interaction with members of his or her interaction with concrete objects
  51. who studied attachment
    • Harry Harlow-Monkeys
    • Schanberg and Field- children in intensive care units; touch therapy
    • Mary Ainsworth-parent-child relationships
  52. styles of attachment
    • secured-cries when mom leaves, crawls to her when she returns
    • ambivalent-showed conflicting symbols when mother returned;reached to get picked up and then looked away
    • Disorganized-didn't know how to act with their caregivers; didn't know how to be soothe
    • Avoidant attachment-didn't get upset when mother left the room; didn't respond when mother came back in
  53. father-child relationship
    Highly involved fathers result in increased social and cognitive competence
  54. some day care controversies
    • -day care infants are more likely to be insecurely attached
    • -high quality child care associated with increased behavior problems
  55. characteristics of a quality day care
    • -focus on teaching¬†
    • -low student/ teacher ratio
    • -sensitive and responsive care givers
    • -ample verbal and cognitive stimulation
    • -stable providers
  56. Parenting styles
    • Authoritarian-set the rues and expect them to be followed; increase feelings of anxiety, stress, low social skills and academic performance
    • Authoritative-set high but realistic standards, explains why they have those rules; high self-esteem, better social, academic, and happy
    • Indulgent/permissive- makes few rules, don't set expectation for expectation for behavior; impulsive, immature
    • Neglectful-unconcerned and uninvolved
  57. Coopersmith study
    increase levels of self-esteem when parents are more involved
  58. Kohlberg's stages of moral development
    • preconventional-based on consequences
    • conventional-morality based on societal rules
    • post-conventional- based on abstract principles that may transcend laws
  59. Cognitive development theory of gender
    once the child understand that their gender isn't going to change, the child become gender competent
  60. gender schema theory
    children from mental framework of masculinity and femininity in that gender
  61. benefits of breastfeeding
    • high IQ
    • resistance to illness
  62. How to raise healthy baby
    read, breastfeed, talk to children, limit tv exposure, don't hit them
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