what is blood made of?
- 55% plasma: 90% water 10% solids ( 8% proteins and 2% electrolytes)
- 45% formed elements : RBC,WBC, platelets
what are the roles of erythrocytes (RBC)?
- Have no nuclei
- Involved in CO2-O2 transport
what are Leucocytes (WBC)?
Part of the immune system
what are thrombocytes (platelets)?
mainly involved in homeostasis or coagulation
what is the sedimentation rate?
- Rate at which the erythrocytes (RBC) sink at the bottom of the test tube
- Calculated in mm/hr
what affects the rate of sedimentation ?
- Rate varies by species and is affected the agglutination of RBC and the plasma proteins
- Also affected by the presence of a disease in an individual
- Rate is ↑ in general infections, malignancy, arthritis, anemia and pregnancy
what does the sedimentation rate increase ↑ in pregnancy?
- Blood volume increases ↑ by 50% in pregnant woman to meet demands of a growing fetus
- kidneys filter ↑ volume of blood
- Safety mechanism = blood is loss during labor and delivery
- RBC and plasma increase ↑ during pregnancy
- RBC ↑ = ↑ body's demand for iron
- ↑ WBC = before and after delivery (for protection)
- ↑ plasma = can cause anemia
- Sedimentation ↑
What are the sedimentation rates for some animals?
MEASURES THE PLASMA (NOT THE BUFFY COAT)
what is the human ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) for males?
what is the human ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) for females?
what is hematocrit (or PCV)?
- Measures the the volume of RBC (RBC concentration) compared to the total blood volume (RBC + plasma)
- Term means to "separate blood"
- Heavy RBC sink to the bottom
- Buffy coat = WBC and platelets rise to the top
what are the normal hematocrit values for newborns?
Up to 60%
what are the normal hematocrit values for adults (males)?
- Have ↑ muscle mass = ↑ hematocrit
what are the normal hematocrit values for females?
what are the normal hematocrit values for pregnant women?
↓ hematocrit, especially in the last trimester as plasma volume ↑
what are the normal hematocrit values for children?
Varies with age
4. how does dehydration or anemia affect an animals hematocrit reading?*
- ↑ PCV since there is less plasma
- ↓ PCV since there is less RBC
- plasma stays the same
what is the normal packed cell volume (PCV) for dogs?
what is the normal packed cell volume (PCV) for cow?
what is coagulation?
- Process initiated by blood platelets
- Platelet substance + Ca ions = thromboplastin
what does thromboplastin do?
Converts prothrombin → thrombin
what is thrombin?
- A proteolytic enzyme
- Converts fibrinogen → fibrin
what is fibrin?
- An insoluble protein that forms an intricate network threadlike structures called fibrilsCauses the blood plasma to gel and clot
where do platelets come from?
From the bone marrow
what is a blood clot?
- Made of blood platelets and proteins from the blood plasma
- Called coagulation factors - Made by the liver
what happens when you have a low number of platelets?
what is the cause of low platelet counts
- Autoimmune diseases where you produce an antibody to your own platelets
- Genetic disorders (ex. haemophilia)
- Viral infections
what happens when you have a high number of platelets?
Make person more prone to blood clots
what is the cause of high platelet count?
- Essential thrombocythemia = Overproduction of platelets
- High counts = Thrombocytosis
what are some complications that come with a high platelet count?
- Heart attack
- Formation of blood clots in areas and legs
what is the lifespan of platelets?
under 7 days
what is the normal platelet count range in humans?
150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microlitter of blood
what are the 5 types of white blood cells (WBC)?
- Neutrophils = 62%
- Eosinophils = 2.3%
- Basophils = 0.4%
- Lymphocytes = 30%
- Monocytes = 5.3%
what are the groups of white blood cells (WBC)?
what are granulocytes?
Cells produced from the bone marrow due to prominent granules in their cytoplasm
which WBCs are known as granulocytes?
what are agranulocytes?
Cell produced in the bone marrow due BUT have NO granules in their cytoplasm
where are agranulocytes found?
Lymph nodes and Spleen
which WBCs are known as agranulocytes?
how are RBCs described?
- Consist of hemoglobin
- Contain iron for cell to carry O2Carry CO2 away from the lungs
how are platelets described ?
- Tiny cells
- Formed in the bone marrow
- Necessary for clotting
- 2 groups : granulocytes and agranulocytes
what are neutrophils?
Phagocytosis of bacteria and cellular debris
what are eosinophils?
Kills down clots and kills parasites
what are basophils?
Synthesize and store histamine (a substance released during inflammation) and heparin (an anticoagulant)
what are lymphocytes?
Produce antibodies (immune response)
what are monocytes?
Phagocytosis, typically as macrophage in liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes
where are leucocytes (WBC) produced?
In the bone marrow and lymph tissue
How to do a differential white blood count?
Stained blood smear by counting 100 cells and classifying them according to type
5. what effect did the saline have on blood cell size and shape? *
- 1.6% salinehave a pointy/prickly shapecells are going under CRENATION (shrinking process)
- ↑er solute concentration outside
- 0.85% saline
- isotonic = equilibrium
- 0.43% saline
- cells get really big
- hemolysis = bursting of cells
6. compare the PCV of the diluted hematocrit (1.6% saline) with the whole blood from PART B (remember that you must multiply the result x 2 since the blood was diluted 1:1). If there is a difference, explain what caused it.***