Immunology

  1. the study of host defense mechanisms
    immunology

    The immune system comprises the tissues, cells, & molecules which mount the immune response.
  2. the ability of the host to protect itself against foreign organisms
    immunity

    Defense systems are based on the recognition of self (one's own) and non-self (foreign) molecules.
  3. Animals have various means of defense against __ - agents that cause disease
    pathogens
  4. tissues involved in the immune system
    lymphoid tissue & blood (particularly white blood cells)

    (page 5 & 6 on slide)
  5. Lymph nodes contain __, a type of white blood cell that initiate an immune response if foreign molecules are detected.
    lymphocytes
  6. __ cells come from the bone marrow and differentiate into many types of blood cells
    Multipotent hematopoietic

    (page 11 on slide)
  7. blood cell that does phagocytosis & stimulate inflammation
    neutrophils
  8. blood cell that releases histamine
    mast cells
  9. blood cells that does phagocytosis & present antigens to T cells
    macrophages & dendritic cells (present to lymph node)
  10. cell that differentiates to form antibody-producing cells & memory cells
    B lymphocytes
  11. cell that kill virus-infected cells; regulate activities of other white blood cells
    T lymphocytes
  12. cell that attack and lyse virus-infected or cancerous body cells
    natural killer cells (non-specific defense)

    - innate & rapid
  13. __ defenses are slow to develop & long lasting (antibodies)
    Specific (adaptive)

    • B lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
  14. represent the 1st line of defense
    nonspecific defense

    • barriers such as skin
    • saliva, tears
    • stomach acid
    • phagocytic cells
    • natural killer cells
  15. 4 key traits of specific immunity
    • specificity
    • ability to distinguish self from non-self
    • diversity - response to a wide variety of non-self molecules
    • memory
  16. The __ immune response uses B cells
    humoral
  17. The __ immune response uses cytotoxic T cells
    cellular
  18. __ are Y shaped protein produced by B cells to identify & neutralize foreign objects & invaders.
    Antibodies

    (page 24 on slide)
  19. substance that initiates the production of antibodies
    antigen

    (page 23 on slide)
  20. Any immature B & T cells that show the potential to mount an immune response to self-antigens undergo apoptosis. This is called __
    clonal deletion
  21. mostly found on surfaces of B cells, macrophages, & other antigen presenting cells. T-helper cells have a surface protein (CD4) that binds to this antigen complex.
    MHC II
  22. present on the surface of every nucleated cell. can interact with cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells have a membrane protein (CD8) which can recognize and bind to this antigen complex
    MHC I

    (Any malfunctioning cell will present antigen on MHC I: cancer, viral infection)
  23. Humoral immune response: Macrophage will phagocytose __ & present the fragment on __ to the __. This cell gets activated and releases__.
    • antigen;
    • MHC II;
    • T-helper cell;
    • cytokines 

    (Macrophages also release cytokines.)

    (page 33 on slide)
  24. Humoral immune response: After the T-helper cell gets activated and __ is released, the T-helper cell __ & differentiates into __ & __
    • cytokine;
    • proliferates;
    • effector T-helper cells;
    • memory cells

    (page 33 on slide)
  25. Humoral immune response: The effector T-helper cell activates __
    B cells

    (page 34 on slide)
  26. Humoral immune response: Antibodies are secreted by __ and binds to an __. Once bound, the cell will __ & then differentiate into __ & __.
    • B cells;
    • epitope of a specific antigen;
    • proliferate (clone itself);
    • plasma cells (effector B cells);
    • memory cells

    (page 28 on slide)
  27. Humoral immune response: __ cells secrete antibodies, tags the pathogen & neutralizes the antigen. __ cells are now in higher quantity than before the antigen activation.
    Plasma (effector B cells); memory

    (Next time an infection occurs, the immune response will be faster.)
  28. Cellular immune response: Intracellular fragment is presented on __. A __ will recognize & bind to it, which then will become activated & proliferate into an __ & __
    • MHC I;
    • cytotoxic T cell;
    • effector cytotoxic T cell;
    • memory cell

    (page 43 on slide)
  29. Cellular immune response: The effector T-cytotoxic T cell will __ by releasing __
    • recognize other infected cells, bind to them & initiate lysis;
    • cytotoxins

    (page 43 on slide)
  30. __ occurs when clones of B & T cells are produced that are directed against self antigens
    Autoimmunity

    can result from failure of clonal deletion or molecular mimicry - self has antigens that resemble nonself & are recognized by T cells

    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis - immune cells attack thyroid tissue,
    • Diabetes type I - insulin-producing cells are destroyed
Author
sophathida
ID
325163
Card Set
Immunology
Description
Week 5
Updated